Dietary Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Compete in Producing Tissue Compositions And Tissue Responses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Dietary Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Compete in Producing Tissue Compositions And Tissue Responses PowerPoint Presentation
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Dietary Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Compete in Producing Tissue Compositions And Tissue Responses

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  1. Dietary Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Compete in Producing Tissue Compositions And Tissue Responses A critique of paradoxes in current advice on dietary lipids. Progress in Lipid Research (2008) 47: 77–106. Planning primary prevention of coronary disease. Current Atherosclerosis Reports (2009) 11: 272–280. Nutritional Armor, 2009

  2. CONNECTING CAUSE TO CONSEQUENCE THE CONTEXT IS COMPETITION

  3. Often-neglected facts cause paradoxes: An observed association with disease is not proof of cause. Treating disease signs & symptoms, may not remove the cause. Smoke predicts fire - - it does NOT cause fire Waving smoke away from fires does NOT prevent fires Don’t bother me with facts - - my mind is already made up! Lands, B. Prog.Lipid Res. 2008; 47: 77-106.

  4. 18-carbon 20- & 22-carbon Serving kcals Short 6 Short 3 Long 6 Long 3 Mackerel, king, 85g 114 43 98 0 360 Salmon,Atlantic wild 85g 155 187 411 291 1877 Oyster, Pacific 85g 39 54 197 65 1204 Mackerel, jack 95g 296 188 283 131 2535 Clam, canned 85g 126 27 34 70 330 Sablefish 85g 213 179 228 113 1703 Chicken, breast 110g 202 1485 66 66 44 Turkey, 140g 235 1442 42 266 98 Pork, loin, 85g 147 400 9 34 0 http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/kim.html

  5. 18-carbon 20- & 22-carbon Serving kcalsShort 6 Short 3 Long 6 Long 3 Mungo beans 85g 69 51 231 0 0 Beans, french 88g 114 147 254 0 0 Beans, kidney, red 128g 109 93 148 0 0 Brussels sprouts 78g 32 60 131 2 0 Broccoli 180g 50 68 232 0 0 Cowpeas (Blackeye) 165g 80 77 56 0 0 Corn, sweet, yellow 82g 66 162 5 0 0 Chickpeas(garbanzo) 82g 135 913 35 0 0 Peanuts, 28g 166 4448 1 0 0 http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/kim.html

  6. 18-carbon 20- & 22-carbon kcals Short6 Short3 Long6 Long3 Oil, canola 1 Tbs 124 2842 1302 0 0 Oil, walnut 1 Tbs 120 7194 1414 0 0 Oil, soybean 1 Tbs 120 6936 925 0 0 Oil, olive 1 Tbs 119 1067 81 0 0 Sunflower,18:1>70% 1 Tbs 124 505 27 0 0 Oil, corn 1 Tbs 120 7888 95 0 0 Food Oils at http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/esstable1.html 18-carbon 20- & 22-carbon k cals Short 6 Short 3 Long 6 Long 3 Oil, perilla 1 Tbs 120 1680 8960 0 0 Oil, flaxseed 1 Tbs 120 2240 7980 0 0 Fish oil, herring 1 Tbs 123 156 417 39 1509 Fish oil, salmon 1 Tbs 123 210 525 92 4657 Fish oil, sardine 1 Tbs 123 274 592 239 3096 Fish oil, cod liver 1 Tbs 123 127 254 127 2557 Fish oil, menhaden 1 Tbs 123 293 575 159 3624 Butter oil, anhydrous 1 Tbs 112 288 185 0 0 Oil, canola 1 Tbs 124 2842 1302 0 0 Oil, walnut 1 Tbs 120 7194 1414 0 0 Oil, soybean 1 Tbs 120 6936 925 0 0 Oil, olive 1 Tbs 119 1067 81 0 0 Sunflower,18:1>70% 1 Tbs 124 505 27 0 0 Oil, palm 1 Tbs 120 1238 27 0 0 Oil, corn 1 Tbs 120 7888 95 0 0 Oil, peanut 1 Tbs 119 4320 0 0 0 Oil, coconut 1 Tbs 117 245 0 0 0 Sunflower,18:2>60% 1 Tbs 120 8935 0 0 0 Safflower, 18:2>70% 1 Tbs 120 10149 0 0 0 Safflower, 18:1>70% 1 Tbs 120 1952 0 0 0 Oil, palm kernel 1 Tbs 117 218 0 0 0

  7. The Context is Competition OMEGA-6 OMEGA-3 Flax oil Canola oil Green Leaves Corn oil Sesame oil Soybean oil Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) LA α-Linolenic acid (18:3n-3) ALA Dihomo-γ -linolenate (20:3n-6) DGLA Meat Organs Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) AA Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) EPA Fish Seafood Adrenic Acid (22:4n-6) DPA (22:5n-3) DPA (22:5n-6) Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) DHA HUFA are Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids with 20- and 22-carbon & 3 or more double bonds A biomarker of omega-3 status in tissues is%n-3 in HUFA A biomarker of omega-6 status in tissues is%n-6 in HUFA

  8. The Context is Competition OMEGA-6 OMEGA-3 Flax oil Canola oil Green Leaves Corn oil Sesame oil Soybean oil Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) LA α-Linolenic acid (18:3n-3) ALA Dihomo-γ -linolenate (20:3n-6) DGLA Balanced eicosanoid actions Meat Organs Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) AA Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) EPA Fish Seafood Adrenic Acid (22:4n-6) DPA (22:5n-3) Neurite health DPA (22:5n-6) Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) DHA HUFA are Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids with 20- and 22-carbon & 3 or more double bonds A biomarker of omega-3 status in tissues is%n-3 in HUFA A biomarker of omega-6 status in tissues is%n-6 in HUFA

  9. Americans have high omega-6 in HUFA & an omega-3 deficit = USA quintiles Heart Attack Death Rate High % omega-6 in HUFA means Omega-3 deficit Primary Prevention happens here % omega-6 in HUFA Lands, Lipids 2003 (Apr.); 38: 317–321 http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/personal.html

  10. Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Health Risk Assessment of An Omega-3 Deficit Omega-3 deficit

  11. FOOD amino acids nucleosides fatty acids sugars essential FA Connecting primary cause to consequences Biomarker < This is a valid surrogate endpoint for nutrition-based primary prevention of CHD morbidity & mortality % n-6 in HUFA of tissue phospholipids arthritis asthma colon cancer length of hospital stay psychiatric disorders workplace disruption n-3 & n-6 HUFA release oxidant stress & inflammation & proliferation & impaired nitric oxide XS n-6 eicosanoids aspirin vessel wall plaques ischemia platelet activation Morbidity & Mortality thrombosis arrhythmia

  12. Wada et al., J Biol Chem. 2007; 282(31):: 22254-66. Tissue HUFA Relative n-3 & n-6 actions with enzymes & receptors Release HUFA Oxidize HUFA to intermediates Make hormones Overall, n-3 forms act less intensely than n-6 forms. Hormone receptor actions

  13. F G H “short” “long” P O A B C D J K N L M E The Context is Competition Traditional GC reports describe wt% for ALL measured fatty acids - - - - but FEW acids are used for clinical interpretations

  14. 5 6 7 8 9 10 Hyperbolic metabolic conversion of dietary PUFA to tissue HUFA n-6 Dietary en% 18:2n-6 Dietary en% 18:3n-3 en% n-6 or n-3 PUFA Very low intakes of n-3 or n-6 acids prevent EFA deficiency Mohrhauer & Holman J. Lipid Res. 3: 151-159, 1963 (also see http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/dri.html) 18:2n-6

  15. MichaelisMenten Hyperbola ALA (18:3n-3) acts in the context of LA (18:2n-6) competition Added n-6 LA decreases n-3 ALA going to n-3 HUFA Less LA gave more ALA going to n-3 HUFA

  16. en%H3 HC3 PC6 en%P6 en%P3 en%H3 en%O en%P6 PC3 HI3 CO Ks HC6 en%H6 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + Tissue HUFA are maintained by dietary PUFA in an empirical hyperbolic metabolic relationship 100 100 20:3+20:4n-6 in HUFA + = ( ) ( ) + + + HC6 = 0.70HC3 = 3.0 PC6 = 0.044 PC3 = 0.055 HI3 = 0.005 HI6 = 0.040 C0 = 5.0 Ks = 0.175 Lands et al, BBA 1180: 147-162 (1992) [constants revised in 2002] ( http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/hufacalc.html )

  17. From Lands (2003) Curr.Topics Nutraceut.Res.1: 113-120 USA 45yr-old urban 55yr-old rural Assayed Predicted

  18. Dietary Reference Intakes for Omega-6 Linoleic Acid EAR - Estimated average requirement for 50% Study 428 infants, and saw unwanted dermal signs were present in 100% infants receiving 0.04 % energy as linoleate, in 40% infants receiving 0.07 % energy as linoleate in 0 % receiving 1.3 %. The EAR may be near 0.06 % of food energy. - Hansen AE, et al. (1958) J.Nutr. 66: 565-576. - Hansen, AE, et al. (1963) Pediatrics 31: 171-192. RDA - Recommended dietary allowance for 98% Thousands of healthy infants were raised with diets with omega-6 at 0.4 to 0.9 % food energy, and calculation showed linoleate requirement for 97% to 98% of infants, i.e.RDA, is likely less than 0.5 % energy - Combes, MA, et al. (1962) Pediatrics 30: 136-144. - Cuthbertson, WFJ. (1976) Am. J.Clin.Nutr. 29: 559-568. Quintiles of dietary intake of linoleate in the USA = 2.9; 4.4; 5.5; 6.9; 10.3 en%. - Dolecek, T.A., Grandits, G. In World Rev. Nutr. Diet 1991; 66: 205-216 200 x EAR 20 x RDA 100 x EAR 10 x RDA http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/dri.html

  19. See milligrams of EFA per serving http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/kim.html

  20. Keep those calories under control Balance the eicosanoid precursors in your body Other facts on your foods http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/kim.html

  21. Effective Primary Prevention Needs You TO UNDERSTAND– Food energy causes transient tissue insults Omega-6 hormones amplify insults into inflamed injuries Omega-3 HUFA diminish inflammatory insults TO TEACH - EAT MORE OMEGA-3 EAT LESS OMEGA-6 EAT FEWER CALORIES PER MEAL Tools for Primary Prevention Low-cost assay of %n-6 in HUFA to monitor risk and compliance Known diet-tissue relationship to predict food impacts Computer-aided food choice to counsel good food combinations