Chapter 13 APF Proper body mechanics protect the back and neck
Good posture=impression of __________and _________ Fitness is For Everybody!
If one part is out of line, other body parts need to _________to balance it. This leads to strain on ________, ________, and _______. It also makes the body have to work harder to do the same things. Over time, misalignment can cause other problems to develop Headache Trouble breathing Painful menstruation Good posture helps the body maintain balance. Fitness is For Everybody!
The body needs a balance of strength and flexibility in order to keep proper alignment. Fitness is For Everybody!
Why is back pain a problem? • An estimated 30-70% of Americans have recurring back problems, 2 million of those are unable to work as a result. Most common reason for worker’s compensation claims and days missed from work. Most of the time when people hurt their backs, they also become inactive, which can lead to further pain and also health problems. • Most back pain is caused by incorrect _______and poor _________________as well as improper exercises, incorrect lifting techniques, sports, and repetitive forced hyperextension of the back. Fitness is For Everybody!
Most back pain can be prevented • Use proper body __________ • Lift properly • Avoid flat back or stomach sleeping-use pillows Fitness is For Everybody!
Causes of neck pain • Workplace design and work habits • Forward ________posture, which stresses the neck muscles creating trigger points and headache • Excessive flexing of the upper middle back (_________) Fitness is For Everybody!
Prevention of posture, neck, and back problems • ________abs and hamstrings and ________hip flexors and low back muscles • Avoid hazardous exercises • Do regular physical activity for the _____________ • Warm up before activity • Sleep on a _________ mattress • Avoid sudden jerky back movements Fitness is For Everybody!
Prevention of posture, neck, and back problems • Maintain appropriate _______________ • Use back and seat supports when sitting for long periods • Maintain _________when carrying heavy loads • Make sure that sports equipment fits your body • Avoid long periods of sitting at a desk or driving. Take frequent _______and get up to _______. Fitness is For Everybody!
Treatments for back pain • Exercise: corrective exercise strengthens weak muscles and stretches short ones so that there is equal pull in all directions. • Medicines • Physical ___________ • Injections • ________- the last resort! Fitness is For Everybody!
Ch.15 Body Composition Possessing an optimal amount of body fat contributes to health and wellness. Fitness is For Everybody!
Body composition: the relative percentage of muscle, fat, bone, and other tissues of the body.
Essential fat: the minimal amount of fat necessary for good health Why we need fat: • Shock absorption • Regulation of body nutrients • Storage of vitamins __________ Males should have NO LESS than __% Females should have NO LESS than ___% Fitness is For Everybody!
Nonessential fat: Fat above essential levels. • We accumulate nonessential fat when we take in more calories than we use. • If this fat accumulates in excessive amounts, obesity and over fatness can occur. Fitness is For Everybody!
Body Composition Tables Fitness is For Everybody!
When assessing body composition, it is necessary to look at BODY COMPOSITION and not simply body _________. Fitness is For Everybody!
Body composition can be assessed in many ways: • Underwater weighing • Skin fold • Body circumference measurements • Bioelectric impedance • Infrared sensors Fitness is For Everybody!
Body Mass Index A correlation between height and weight that estimates body fatness better that height/weight tables. Recommended levels are >___ for overweight and >___ for obesity. One limitation of this is that it may misclassify active people with a large amount of muscle mass. Fitness is For Everybody!
Obesity has recently been elevated to a _______ _______for heart disease along with high blood lipids, high blood pressure, tobacco use, and sedentary living. Fitness is For Everybody!
Health risks of obesity: • 70% higher than normal death rate • Breast cancer • High blood pressure(____________) • Worsening of asthma Fitness is For Everybody!
Regular physical activity combined with good dietary habits is the most effective means of losing body fat. Fitness is For Everybody!
Creating a caloric balance: Be smart about calories in: _______, and aim to expend calories with moderate _________activity that can be sustained for relatively long periods of time. Total calories expended counts more for control of body composition than the intensity of the exercise. Strength training also helps increase ________________and is desirable to include in an exercise plan. Fitness is For Everybody!
Balance is key to weight maintenance Fitness is For Everybody!
Low body fat levels are risky too: • Anorexia/_______/______________ • Mental and emotional___________ • _________________________ • Eating disorders • Amenorrhea • Osteoporosis Fitness is For Everybody!