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Title: Indoor Air Microbes and Respiratory Symptoms of Children in Moisture Damaged and Reference Schools PowerPoint Presentation
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Title: Indoor Air Microbes and Respiratory Symptoms of Children in Moisture Damaged and Reference Schools Background: Indoor air quality of school buildings may be a significant factor for children’s health as schools are a daily environment for children.

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Presentation Transcript
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Title:Indoor Air Microbes and Respiratory Symptoms of Children in Moisture Damaged and Reference Schools

background
Background:
  • Indoor air quality of school buildings may be a significant factor for children’s health as schools are a daily environment for children.
  • Some reports from schools indicated health consequences associated with moisture problems.
background3
Background:
  • Moisture in buildings can lead to microbial growth in building and harmful enission into indoor air.
  • This phenomenon was also noticed in houses, the microbial concentrations in moisture damaged houses are slightly higher than in normal houses.
the purpose of the study was
The purpose of the study was:
  • To determine whether microbial indoor air quality and associated health status of children in schools with visible moisture and mold problem differed from those in nondamaged schools.
materials and methods
Materials and methods:
  • The measurement of of the microbial indoor air quality and respiratory symptoms of children were done in 32 schools. 24 schools were with visible moisture damage, and 8 schools were with no problems.
  • School buildings of concrete/brick and wooden construction were included.
materials and methods6
Materials and methods:
  • The method included many steps, the first step was building inspection:
    • All buildings were inspected for visible signs of moisture by a trained civil engineer. Also the types of damages were recoreded along with severity of the damages.
    • The buildings were devided into two groups : the index group which were the buildings that had moisture damage. The reference group: which were the buildings that had no damage.
materials and methods7
Materials and methods:
  • The second step was : air sampling:
  • Airborne microbes were determined by using a six stage impactor.
  • They took samples from classrooms and corridors.
materials and methods8
Materials and methods:
  • Samples from fungi were taken on 2% malt extract agar, samples from bacteria were taken on tryptone glucose yeast agar.
  • Colonies were counted in colony forming units,they used light microscope to identify the colonies.
materials and methods9
Materials and methods:
  • The third step was health surveys:
  • Information on the respiratory symptoms and health of participating children was collected by questionnaire,32 questions were included
  • Parents were asked to fill in the questionnaire with the child, for children between 7 and 12 years.
materials and methods10
Materials and methods:
  • The fourth step was statistical analysis:
  • Nonparametric tests were used for data anlysis.
  • Association between symptoms and moisture damage in index and reference schools was analyzed using logistic regression models.
results
Results:
  • In building inspection:
  • The main reason for the moisture damage was aging of construction materials resulting in leakage or other damages.
airborne fungi
Airborne fungi:
  • Concentrations of viable airborne fungi were 26 cfu/m3 in index schools and 18 cfu/m3 in reference schools. For the concrete/ brick buildings the concentrations were 19 for the index schools and 9 for the reference schools.
  • The most common fungal genera in all school buildings were penicillium, yeast, and cladosporium.
airborne bacteria
Airborne bacteria:
  • The concentrations of viable airborne bacteria were 593 and 432 cfu/m3 for index schools and reference schools.
  • For concrete/brick they were 473 and 366 cfu/m3 for index schools and reference schools respectively.
  • For wooden schools they were 985 and 565 cfu/m3 for index schools and reference schools respectively
health findings
Health findings:
  • The overall response rate for health surveys was 82%.
  • Children in index schools reported respiratory symptoms more often than children in reference schools. The symptoms were more between children from concrete/brick
discussion
Discussion:
  • The differences between the 24 index schools and the 8 schools were not significant, but the differences were more significant if we consider the building type.
  • Moisture damage increased the concentrations of fungi in buildings of concrete/brick, so the indoor air is affected more by the building type.
discussion21
Discussion:
  • Also the crowding in school buildings probably plays a significant role affecting microbial levels and fungi found in indoor air.
  • The association between respiratory symptoms and moisture damge was seen more often in index schools especially in concrete/brick buildings.
summary
Summary:
  • Moisture damage increased the fungal concentrations significantly in concrete buildings but not in wooden school buildings.
  • Moisture damage was a risk factor for children’s respiratory symptoms in both school types.
summary23
Summary:
  • The remarkable effect of a building frame on the microbial content of indoor air and on schoolchildren’s symptoms should be taken into account in future studies.