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The Rise of Totalitarianism
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The Rise of Totalitarianism

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  1. Witness History Audio: The Jazz Age The Rise of Totalitarianism Changes in Society After World War I In the twenties, many Americans were ready for a more carefree existence. Others rallied against the trend and pushed Prohibition through Congress. Jazz became the soundtrack in the underground world of speakeasies and flappers. Section 1: Postwar Social Changes History Interactive: Pop Culture in the Jazz Age Note Taking Transparency 166 1 of 8

  2. The New Literature The postwar years ushered in many original works of literature. It was a time of experimentation with language and structure. Some writers—such as Virginia Woolf and James Joyce—employed stream of consciousness. Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and other African American writers in Harlem told about the experiences of a people who had not been heard from. The Rise of Totalitarianism Section 1: Postwar Social Changes New Scientific Theories In the early 20th century, scientists made many breakthroughs that would greatly advance their fields. Marie Curie and others worked with radioactivity; Albert Einstein developed his theory of relativity; Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin; and Sigmund Freud pioneered psychoanalysis. 2 of 8

  3. The Rise of Totalitarianism Modern Art and Architecture Art moved away from the traditional in the early 1900s. Some of the new styles were called fauvism, cubism, abstract, dadaism, and surrealism. Architects also rejected the work of the past and began to work with glass, steel, and concrete structures (in the Bauhaus school) and with materials and designs that blended with the environment (Frank Lloyd Wright). Section 1: Postwar Social Changes Color Transparency 168: The Persistence of Memory, by Salvador Dali 3 of 8

  4. The Rise of Totalitarianism Looking Ahead The growing sense of hope and relief that came after World War I would soon be devastated by an economic crisis. Section 1: Postwar Social Changes QuickTake Section Quiz Progress Monitoring Transparency 4 of 8

  5. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 1 Note Taking Transparency 166 5 of 8

  6. Witness History Audio: Brother Can You Spare a Dime? The Rise of Totalitarianism Politics in the Postwar World After the war, Europe faced economic instability as jobs were scarce and cities were ravaged. These factors led to political unrest. The U.S. was not affected so much economically, but was uneasy about the radical ideas immigrants might bring in, so it limited immigration from Europe. Section 2: The Western Democracies Stumble Note Taking Transparency 167A 1 of 9

  7. Postwar Foreign Policy The Rise of Totalitarianism Peace seemed fragile after the war. France wanted to weaken Germany by enforcing the Treaty of Versailles, while Britain wanted to lesson the treaty’s effect on Germany. Many countries agreed to reduce their navies, and the League of Nations worked toward stopping aggression. Yet when Japan was allowed to invade Manchuria, other dictators took note. Section 2: The Western Democracies Stumble Postwar Economics While Europe struggled to return to a steady peacetime economy, the U.S. emerged as the economic leader. Affluent America bolstered Europe’s recovery. 2 of 9

  8. The Rise of Totalitarianism The Great Depression The U.S. stock market crashed in 1929, ushering in the Great Depression. This was a global economic crisis that closed businesses and left behind many jobless, homeless, starving people. Section 2: The Western Democracies Stumble Witness History Video: The Great Depression and American Farmers Note Taking Transparency 167B 3 of 9

  9. The Democracies React to the Depression The Rise of Totalitarianism The governments of Britain, France, and the United States struggled to help their people. President Roosevelt’s New Deal programs went a long way toward helping suffering Americans. Political radicals gained ground during this difficult time. Color Transparency 169: WPA Mural Section 2: The Western Democracies Stumble QuickTake Section Quiz Progress Monitoring Transparency 4 of 9

  10. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 2 Note Taking Transparency 167A 5 of 9

  11. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 2 Note Taking Transparency 167B 6 of 9

  12. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 2 Color Transparency 169: WPA Mural 7 of 9

  13. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 2 Progress Monitoring Transparency (1 of 2) 8 of 9

  14. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 2 Progress Monitoring Transparency (2 of 2) 9 of 9

  15. Witness History Audio: A New Leader: Mussolini The Rise of Totalitarianism Mussolini’s Rise to Power Italian nationalists, led by Benito Mussolini, felt betrayed by the government and the Allies from World War I. They revolted and became powerful through terror. These Fascists, as they were known, were finally handed the reins of government by the king in order to avoid a civil war. Section 3: Fascism in Italy Note Taking Transparency 168A 1 of 8

  16. Mussolini’s Rule Although Italy was officially a parliamentary monarchy, under Mussolini, it became a dictatorship. He used propaganda and terror to control the people. The Fascists wanted everyone to live and work only for the state. The Rise of Totalitarianism Color Transparency 170: The Triumph of Mussolini Section 3: Fascism in Italy The Nature of Fascism Fascism glorified action, violence, discipline, and blind loyalty to the state. They pursued foreign expansion through warfare. They distrusted reason and used emotion to their advantage. The state was all. Note Taking Transparency 168B 2 of 8

  17. The Rise of Totalitarianism Looking Ahead Democracy, Communism, and Fascism competed for influence in postwar Europe. Fascism was on the fast track during the Great Depression. Section 3: Fascism in Italy QuickTake Section Quiz Progress Monitoring Transparency 3 of 8

  18. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 3 Note Taking Transparency 168A 4 of 8

  19. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 3 Color Transparency 170: The Triumph of Musssolini 5 of 8

  20. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 3 Note Taking Transparency 168B 6 of 8

  21. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 3 Progress Monitoring Transparency (1 of 2) 7 of 8

  22. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 3 Progress Monitoring Transparency (2 of 2) 8 of 8

  23. Witness History Audio: The Heart of the Party The Rise of Totalitarianism A Totalitarian State In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin set up a totalitarian state. He took away all free market rights and made every enterprise and farm state owned. This gave workers little incentive to produce quality products or extra food and the country struggled to feed its people. Section 4: The Soviet Union Under Stalin Note Taking Transparency 169 1 of 8

  24. Stalin’s Terror Tactics Stalin was ruthless against anyone perceived as being disloyal. He set up Gulags where people would be sent to work and he even took food away from farm families in what was called the Terror Famine. The country lost many of its best and brightest. The Rise of Totalitarianism Color Transparency 170: Gulag Prisoners, by Nikolai German Geography Interactive: The Soviet Union, 1928-1941 Section 4: The Soviet Union Under Stalin Communist Attempts to Control Thought Stalin used propaganda to boost his popularity. Posters, loudspeaker announcements, and newspaper articles extolled Communism. Books, music, and other art forms that were critical of Stalin were censored. He also tried to replace religion with communist ideology. Witness History Audio: Anna Akhmatova 2 of 8

  25. Soviet Society Under Stalin The Rise of Totalitarianism There was still a class order under Communism, but this one put party members at the top. All others endured shortages of food and consumer goods, although they did get free education and health care, and women were treated as equals to men in the workplace. Section 4: The Soviet Union Under Stalin Soviet Foreign Policy The Soviets encouraged communist revolutions in other countries through an organization called Comintern. This organization supported revolutionary groups around the world and created a “Red Scare” in the United States. 3 of 8

  26. Looking Ahead The Rise of Totalitarianism Stalin succeeded in making his country a military superpower, but it was also home to people with a much lower standard of living than the rest of the developed world. Section 4: The Soviet Union Under Stalin QuickTake Section Quiz Progress Monitoring Transparency 4 of 8

  27. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 4 Note Taking Transparency 169 5 of 8

  28. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 4 Color Transparency 170: Gulag Prisoners, by Nikolai German 6 of 8

  29. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 4 Progress Monitoring Transparency (1 of 2) 7 of 8

  30. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 4 Progress Monitoring Transparency (2 of 2) 8 of 8

  31. Witness History Audio: The Nazis in Control of Germany The Rise of Totalitarianism The Weimar Republic’s Rise and Fall The democratic government known as the Weimar Republic suffered from the competition of too many small parties and economic disasters. Still, it was a prolific time for artists, who stimulated new movements, such as Dadaism. Section 5: Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany Note Taking Transparency 170 1 of 8

  32. The Nazi Party’s Rise to Power The Great Depression and the feeling that the Weimar government was weak, led to the rise of Adolf Hitler. He appealed to veterans, workers, the lower middle classes, and business people with his promises to rearm Germany, create jobs, and end reparations. The Rise of Totalitarianism Color Transparency 172: Hitler at Nuremburg Stadium Section 5: Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany The Third Reich Controls Germany Hitler and the Nazis moved quickly to change Germany’s course. They put people to work through public works programs; they terrorized dissenters; they placed restrictions on Jews, who were blamed for Germany’s loss in World War I; and they denounced modern art and Christianity. 2 of 8

  33. Authoritarian Rule in Eastern Europe The Rise of Totalitarianism Just as in Germany, many nations in Eastern Europe came under dictatorships. Ethnic and religious conflicts rose in the new states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia and elsewhere. Color Transparency 173: Ethnic Groups of Eastern Europe, 1936 Section 5: Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany QuickTake Section Quiz Progress Monitoring Transparency QuickTake Chapter Test 3 of 8

  34. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 5 Note Taking Transparency 170 4 of 8

  35. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 5 Color Transparency 172: Hitler at Nuremburg Stadium 5 of 8

  36. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 5 Color Transparency 173: Ethnic Groups of Eastern Europe, 1936 6 of 8

  37. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 5 Progress Monitoring Transparency (1 of 2) 7 of 8

  38. The Rise of Totalitarianism: Section 5 Progress Monitoring Transparency (2 of 2) 8 of 8