The Integration of the Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions with Comprehensive School Counseling: A Framework that Supports All Students Gail M. Smith, Supervisor School Counseling Debbie Lozo, Supervisor Special Education Laurel Kinard, Director Student Assistance Programs
Georgia’s Student AchievementPyramid of Interventions a framework of instructional/behavioral interventions that maximizes student performance for ALL students.
It is a model that is • Proactive • Collaborative • Data-driven • Multi-tiered • Whole child centered
Pyramid of Interventions Tier 4: Specially Designed Instruction – Special Education • Tier 3: Intensive • Interventions - SST • Individualized – refine and intensify • More indepth assessment & • data analysis • Strategies & interventions • tailored to specific needs • Consideration for referral to special education and/other programs only when data indicates a need • Tier 2: Targeted Interventions • Tier 1 + more “TLC” • Standard intervention protocols • Problem solving process & data analysis • Tailored to student needs • Enhanced opportunities for extended learning • Targeted small groups and selected individuals • Includes more frequent progress monitoring • Planned to address developmental domains (academic, communication/language, social/emotional, etc.) • Tier 1: Performance Based Instruction for ALL students: • Standards based curriculum • Research-based practices and strategies • Differentiated instruction • Effective classroom management • Guided by progress monitoring and balanced assessment • Planned to address developmental domains (academic, communication/language, social/emotional, etc.)
Tier 1 • What All Students Receive • Performance based instruction for all students • Standards based curriculum • Research based practices • Differentiated instruction • Effective classroom management • Attention to developmental domains (academic, communication/ language, social/emotional, etc.) • Progress monitoring and problem solving • Assessment to determine what students need
Tier 2 • Targeted Interventions, Additional Focus and Intensity • Interventions are available in the general education setting • Opportunities to increase exposure (engaged time on targeted content) • Problem Solving Process and data analysis • Tailored to student needs • Designed for flexible groupings, some small groups • Attention to developmental domains • More frequent progress monitoring • Short term in nature - most Tier 2 interventions should have an end • Documentation of interventions and outcomes begins
Tier 3 • Intensive, Individualized • More individualized problem solving model • Can include Title 1, Reading Recovery, remedial services, and other district initiatives as long as interventions and strategies are documented • Includes longer term interventions • In depth assessment, formative assessments, and data analysis • More specialized strategies and interventions • Child specific focus • Data used for consideration of eligibility for special education are the data that have been gathered through the provision of supplemental services using Pyramid of Intervention services in Tier 1 & 2
Tier 4 • Specially Designed Learning • Specialized programs, methodologies, or instructional • deliveries • Greater frequency of progress monitoring
Behavioral Interventions Specially Designed -decrease group size -increase “dosage” or amount of interventions -use flexible groups -individual behavior plan -classroom behavior management plan -school wide discipline Individualized Core Team Smaller Group School Intervention Teams Whole Group Classroom Teacher
Behavioral Interventions Rarely does behavior occur without relationship to the academic environment. Georgia Department of Education, 2008
Tier 1 What All Students Receive Universal school-wide expectations, rules, and procedures serve as the standards for behavior 80-90% are expected to respond positively. Georgia Department of Education, 2008
Tier 2 Targeted Interventions, Additional Focus and Intensity • Most common data used is office referral • Most common screener is classroom teacher • Targeted skills include re-teaching and practice of specific behaviors • Monitored by teacher checklists, office referrals, or rating scales Georgia Department of Education, 2008
Tier 3 Intensive, Individualized • May include a more in depth analysis of student’s behavior • May include a functional behavioral assessment • Academic assessments may also be completed as the link between academic deficits and behavior can not be ignored • A Behavior Intervention Plan may be developed Georgia Department of Education, 2008
Tier 4 Specially Designed Learning • Specialized programs, methodologies, or instructional deliveries • Greater frequency of progress monitoring Georgia Department of Education, 2008
A Comprehensive School Counseling Program American School Counselor Association, 2003 • A program foundation • A delivery system • A management system • Accountability
Pyramid of Interventions Proactive Collaborative Data-driven Multi-tiered Whole child centered School Counseling Pyramid Proactive Collaborative Data-driven Multi-tiered Whole child centered Practical Overlap
School Counseling Pyramid Specialized Interventions Individual Support Intentional Guidance Classroom Guidance School Improvement
School Improvement The school improvement plan is the basis of an effective school counseling program. • Needs assessment • School profile • Data
Tier 1 Guidance Curriculum “Developmental in design, educational and preventive in nature, and comprehensive in scope, the guidance curriculum ensures that every student in the school will receive services from the guidance program.” Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
Tier 2 Intentional Guidance “The intentional guidance philosophy is that some kids need more.” Disaggregating data can reveal equity and access issues: • Competencies • Barriers to learning • Systemic issues Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
Tier 3 Individual Support Can include: • Individual student planning (appraisal or advisement) • Consultation with parents, teachers, other educators, community • Individual counseling • Crisis counseling/response • Referrals • Peer facilitation Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
Tier 4 Specialized Interventions • Agency referral • Emergency crisis treatment • Family preservation • Long-term therapy • Probation/incarceration • Hospitalization • Disabilities programs Adelman & Taylor, 1999
In the past, school counselors were trained to deliver services one-on-one, behind closed doors, ancillary to the academic program. Today, individual counseling can be considered a Tier 3 intervention.
With the introduction of the comprehensive model, the delivery of services has shifted from primarily Tier 3 to Tier 1, classroom guidance Tier 2, intentional guidance andTier 3, individual support
Both models have the same goal in mind – EQUITY and ACCESS to quality instructional and behavioral support for ALL students to maximize student performance.
Pyramid of Interventions School Counseling Pyramid
Tier 4 Specialized Interventions Tier 3 Individual Support Tier 2 Intentional Guidance Tier 1 Classroom Guidance Kinard, Lozo & Smith (2008)
Effective school counseling programs are linked to School Improvement and overlap with the Pyramid of Interventions.
The shift is encouraging counselors to develop data-driven practices that support School Improvementand maximize Student Performancerather than operate in isolation.
Cobb County School DistrictIntervention/Prevention Programs • Coalition of Treatment Providers • Sources of Strength • QPR • Cobb Cyber Safe • Youth Leadership • Botvin Life Skills • Second Step Violence Prevention Curriculum • Olweus Bully Prevention • SUPER Program • Emergency Response and Crisis Management • Community Collaborations • Gang Prevention and Intervention • Positive School Climate Initiatives • Comprehensive/Developmental School Counseling Curriculum
Activity Think about the interventions conducted by your school counseling program and or other support personnel in your school or district. List them on the appropriate tier on your pyramid.
School Counseling Pyramid Specialized Interventions Individual Support Intentional Guidance Classroom Guidance
The effective integration of the Pyramid of Interventions with Comprehensive School Counseling practices requires developing a common language — data is the foundation.
Evidence-Based vs Research-Based • Evidence-Based: Specific interventions supported by well-designed, independent research studies. • Research-Based: Methods, content, materials developed in guidance from the collective research and scientific community Georgia Department of Education, 2008
Types of Data • Process • Perception • Results
Process Data • Provides evidence the intervention occurred • Reports who, what, where, when and how • Does not report how students are different
Perception Data Reports what a student believes, knows or can demonstrate Measures ASK Attitudes Skills Knowledge Hatch, T. (2006) Behavior
Results Data • Achievement Related • attendance • discipline • parent involvement • homework completion • course enrollment patterns
Results Data • Achievement • Standardized test scores • SAT/ACT scores • Graduation rates • GPAs • AP tests • College prep course completion
Hatching Results Conceptual Diagram Process Data Perception Data Results Data Competency Attainment Data Achievement Data Achievement Related Data Guidance Lessons Group Counseling Who? What? When? Where? How Long? Attendance Discipline referrals Parent Involvement Homework completion Course enrollment patterns SAT/ACT Scores Graduation rates GPA AP Tests College prep class completion Attitudes Skills Knowledge Behavior Change Guidance Curriculum Intentional Guidance (intervention) Hatch, T. (2006)
Outcome Measures “For many school counseling interventions, there is not a direct link between the intervention and the ultimate desired change in behavior and performance.” Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
Outcome Measures “Different measures are appropriate at different points in the causal chain that links the intervention with the change in achievement.” Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
Types of Outcome Measures Immediate - corresponds to the competencies (knowledge, skills, attitudes) that the curriculum was designed to help students attain Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
Types of Outcome Measures Proximal – measures specific outcomes or school behavior an intervention is designed to address and are often achievement related. Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
Types of Outcome Measures Distal – measures the effects of an intervention on more distant outcomes such as school behavior and/or achievement; the eventual change that is required. Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
The Relationship Among Levels of Outcomes and Categories of Data Proximal Outcomes Intervention Immediate Outcomes Distal Outcomes Perform Study Skills Score Higher On Class Exams Academic Group Intervention Perform Better On State Test Perform Self-Talk Skills Show Higher Self-Efficacy Process Data (Knowledge, Attitudes, Skills) Process Data Results Data Standards and Competency Data Achievement- Related Data Achievement- Related or Achievement Data Immediate Data Long-Range Data Intermediate Data Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)
Examples in Handouts • Guidance Curriculum Action Plan • Intentional Guidance Action Plan
Conclusion When school counselors build their school counseling programs on • The Pyramid of Interventions and • The School Improvement Plan, the result is improved student performance for all students.