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The Integration of the Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions with Comprehensive School Counseling: A Framework that Supports All Students. Gail M. Smith, Supervisor School Counseling Debbie Lozo, Supervisor Special Education Laurel Kinard, Director Student Assistance Programs.

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slide1

The Integration of the Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions with Comprehensive School Counseling: A Framework that Supports All Students

Gail M. Smith, Supervisor School Counseling

Debbie Lozo, Supervisor Special Education

Laurel Kinard, Director Student Assistance Programs

georgia s student achievement pyramid of interventions
Georgia’s Student AchievementPyramid of Interventions

a framework of instructional/behavioral interventions that maximizes student performance for ALL students.

it is a model that is
It is a model that is
  • Proactive
  • Collaborative
  • Data-driven
  • Multi-tiered
  • Whole child centered
pyramid of interventions
Pyramid of Interventions

Tier 4:

Specially Designed Instruction –

Special Education

  • Tier 3: Intensive
  • Interventions - SST
  • Individualized – refine and intensify
  • More indepth assessment &
  • data analysis
  • Strategies & interventions
  • tailored to specific needs
  • Consideration for referral to special education and/other programs only when data indicates a need
  • Tier 2: Targeted Interventions
  • Tier 1 + more “TLC”
  • Standard intervention protocols
  • Problem solving process & data analysis
  • Tailored to student needs
  • Enhanced opportunities for extended learning
  • Targeted small groups and selected individuals
  • Includes more frequent progress monitoring
  • Planned to address developmental domains (academic, communication/language, social/emotional, etc.)
  • Tier 1: Performance Based Instruction for ALL students:
  • Standards based curriculum
  • Research-based practices and strategies
  • Differentiated instruction
  • Effective classroom management
  • Guided by progress monitoring and balanced assessment
  • Planned to address developmental domains (academic, communication/language, social/emotional, etc.)
tier 1
Tier 1
  • What All Students Receive
  • Performance based instruction for all students
  • Standards based curriculum
  • Research based practices
  • Differentiated instruction
  • Effective classroom management
  • Attention to developmental domains (academic, communication/ language, social/emotional, etc.)
  • Progress monitoring and problem solving
  • Assessment to determine what students need
tier 2
Tier 2
  • Targeted Interventions, Additional Focus and Intensity
  • Interventions are available in the general education setting
  • Opportunities to increase exposure (engaged time on targeted content)
  • Problem Solving Process and data analysis
  • Tailored to student needs
  • Designed for flexible groupings, some small groups
  • Attention to developmental domains
  • More frequent progress monitoring
  • Short term in nature - most Tier 2 interventions should have an end
  • Documentation of interventions and outcomes begins
tier 3
Tier 3
  • Intensive, Individualized
  • More individualized problem solving model
  • Can include Title 1, Reading Recovery, remedial services, and other district initiatives as long as interventions and strategies are documented
  • Includes longer term interventions
  • In depth assessment, formative assessments, and data analysis
  • More specialized strategies and interventions
  • Child specific focus
  • Data used for consideration of eligibility for special education are the data that have been gathered through the provision of supplemental services using Pyramid of Intervention services in Tier 1 & 2
tier 4
Tier 4
  • Specially Designed Learning
  • Specialized programs, methodologies, or instructional
  • deliveries
  • Greater frequency of progress monitoring
slide10

Behavioral Interventions

Specially Designed

-decrease group size

-increase “dosage” or amount of interventions

-use flexible groups

-individual behavior plan

-classroom behavior

management plan

-school wide

discipline

Individualized

Core Team

Smaller Group

School Intervention Teams

Whole Group

Classroom Teacher

behavioral interventions
Behavioral Interventions

Rarely does behavior occur without relationship to the academic environment.

Georgia Department of Education, 2008

tier 112
Tier 1

What All Students Receive

Universal school-wide expectations, rules, and procedures serve as the standards

for behavior

80-90% are expected to respond positively.

Georgia Department of Education, 2008

tier 213
Tier 2

Targeted Interventions, Additional Focus and Intensity

  • Most common data used is office referral
  • Most common screener is classroom teacher
  • Targeted skills include re-teaching and practice of specific behaviors
  • Monitored by teacher checklists, office referrals, or rating scales

Georgia Department of Education, 2008

tier 314
Tier 3

Intensive, Individualized

  • May include a more in depth analysis of student’s behavior
  • May include a functional behavioral assessment
  • Academic assessments may also be completed as the link between academic deficits and behavior can not be ignored
  • A Behavior Intervention Plan may be developed

Georgia Department of Education, 2008

tier 415
Tier 4

Specially Designed Learning

  • Specialized programs, methodologies, or instructional deliveries
  • Greater frequency of progress monitoring

Georgia Department of Education, 2008

a comprehensive school counseling program
A Comprehensive School Counseling Program

American School Counselor Association, 2003

  • A program foundation
  • A delivery system
  • A management system
  • Accountability
practical overlap
Pyramid of Interventions

Proactive

Collaborative

Data-driven

Multi-tiered

Whole child centered

School Counseling Pyramid

Proactive

Collaborative

Data-driven

Multi-tiered

Whole child centered

Practical Overlap
slide18

School Counseling Pyramid

Specialized Interventions

Individual Support

Intentional Guidance

Classroom Guidance

School Improvement

school improvement
School Improvement

The school improvement plan is the basis of an effective school counseling program.

  • Needs assessment
  • School profile
  • Data
tier 1 guidance curriculum
Tier 1 Guidance Curriculum

“Developmental in design, educational and preventive in nature, and comprehensive in scope, the guidance curriculum ensures that every student in the school will receive services from the guidance program.”

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

tier 2 intentional guidance
Tier 2 Intentional Guidance

“The intentional guidance philosophy is that some kids need more.”

Disaggregating data can reveal equity and access issues:

  • Competencies
  • Barriers to learning
  • Systemic issues

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

tier 3 individual support
Tier 3 Individual Support

Can include:

  • Individual student planning (appraisal or advisement)
  • Consultation with parents, teachers, other educators, community
  • Individual counseling
  • Crisis counseling/response
  • Referrals
  • Peer facilitation

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

tier 4 specialized interventions
Tier 4 Specialized Interventions
  • Agency referral
  • Emergency crisis treatment
  • Family preservation
  • Long-term therapy
  • Probation/incarceration
  • Hospitalization
  • Disabilities programs

Adelman & Taylor, 1999

slide24

In the past, school counselors were trained to deliver services one-on-one, behind closed doors, ancillary to the academic program. Today, individual counseling can be considered a Tier 3 intervention.

slide25

With the introduction of the comprehensive model, the delivery of services has shifted from primarily Tier 3 to Tier 1, classroom guidance Tier 2, intentional guidance andTier 3, individual support

slide26

Both models have the same goal in mind – EQUITY and ACCESS to quality instructional and behavioral support for ALL students to maximize student performance.

slide27

Pyramid of Interventions

School Counseling Pyramid

slide28

Tier 4

Specialized Interventions

Tier 3

Individual Support

Tier 2

Intentional Guidance

Tier 1

Classroom Guidance

Kinard, Lozo & Smith (2008)

slide29

Effective school counseling programs are linked to School Improvement and overlap with the Pyramid of Interventions.

slide30

The shift is encouraging counselors to develop data-driven practices that support School Improvementand maximize Student Performancerather than operate in isolation.

cobb county school district intervention prevention programs
Cobb County School DistrictIntervention/Prevention Programs
  • Coalition of Treatment Providers
  • Sources of Strength
  • QPR
  • Cobb Cyber Safe
  • Youth Leadership
  • Botvin Life Skills
  • Second Step Violence Prevention Curriculum
  • Olweus Bully Prevention
  • SUPER Program
  • Emergency Response and Crisis Management
  • Community Collaborations
  • Gang Prevention and Intervention
  • Positive School Climate Initiatives
  • Comprehensive/Developmental School Counseling Curriculum
activity
Activity

Think about the interventions conducted by your school counseling program and or other support personnel in your school

or district.

List them on the appropriate tier

on your pyramid.

slide33

School Counseling Pyramid

Specialized Interventions

Individual Support

Intentional Guidance

Classroom Guidance

slide34

The effective integration of the Pyramid of Interventions with Comprehensive School Counseling practices requires developing a common language — data is the foundation.

evidence based vs research based
Evidence-Based vs Research-Based
  • Evidence-Based: Specific interventions supported by well-designed, independent research studies.
  • Research-Based: Methods, content, materials developed in guidance from the collective research and scientific community

Georgia Department of Education, 2008

types of data
Types of Data
  • Process
  • Perception
  • Results
process data
Process Data
  • Provides evidence the intervention occurred
  • Reports who, what, where, when and how
  • Does not report how students are different
perception data
Perception Data

Reports what a student believes, knows or

can demonstrate

Measures ASK

Attitudes

Skills

Knowledge

Hatch, T. (2006)

Behavior

results data
Results Data
  • Achievement Related
    • attendance
    • discipline
    • parent involvement
    • homework completion
    • course enrollment patterns
results data40
Results Data
  • Achievement
    • Standardized test scores
    • SAT/ACT scores
    • Graduation rates
    • GPAs
    • AP tests
    • College prep course completion
slide41

Hatching Results Conceptual Diagram

Process Data

Perception Data

Results Data

Competency Attainment Data

Achievement Data

Achievement Related Data

Guidance Lessons

Group Counseling

Who?

What?

When?

Where?

How Long?

Attendance

Discipline referrals

Parent Involvement

Homework completion

Course enrollment patterns

SAT/ACT Scores

Graduation rates

GPA

AP Tests

College prep

class completion

Attitudes

Skills

Knowledge

Behavior Change

Guidance Curriculum

Intentional Guidance (intervention)

Hatch, T. (2006)

outcome measures
Outcome Measures

“For many school counseling interventions, there is not a direct link

between the intervention and the ultimate desired change

in behavior and performance.”

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

outcome measures43
Outcome Measures

“Different measures are appropriate

at different points in the causal chain

that links the intervention

with the change in achievement.”

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

types of outcome measures
Types of Outcome Measures

Immediate - corresponds to the competencies (knowledge, skills, attitudes) that the curriculum was designed

to help students attain

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

types of outcome measures45
Types of Outcome Measures

Proximal – measures specific outcomes or school behavior an intervention is designed to address and are often achievement related.

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

types of outcome measures46
Types of Outcome Measures

Distal – measures the effects of an intervention on more distant outcomes such as school behavior and/or achievement; the eventual change that is required.

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

slide47

The Relationship Among Levels of Outcomes and Categories of Data

Proximal

Outcomes

Intervention

Immediate

Outcomes

Distal Outcomes

Perform

Study

Skills

Score Higher

On Class

Exams

Academic

Group

Intervention

Perform Better

On State Test

Perform

Self-Talk

Skills

Show Higher

Self-Efficacy

Process Data

(Knowledge,

Attitudes,

Skills)

Process Data

Results Data

Standards and

Competency Data

Achievement-

Related Data

Achievement-

Related or

Achievement Data

Immediate

Data

Long-Range

Data

Intermediate

Data

Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch (2007)

examples in handouts
Examples in Handouts
  • Guidance Curriculum Action Plan
  • Intentional Guidance Action Plan
conclusion
Conclusion

When school counselors build their school counseling programs on

  • The Pyramid of Interventions and
  • The School Improvement Plan,

the result is improved student performance for all students.

resources
Resources
  • www.cescal.org
  • www.interventioncentral.org
  • www.rtinetwork.org
  • www.nasdse.org
  • www.whatworks.ed.gov
  • www.smhp.psych.ucla.edu
  • www.studentprogress.org
  • www2.edtrust.org
  • www.schoolcounselor.org
references
References

American School counselor Association. (2003). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA.

Adelman H., & Taylor, L. (1999). Coalition for cohesive policy in addressing barriers to development and learning. UCLA Center for Mental Health in Schools.

Dimmitt, C., Carey, J. C., & Hatch, T. (2007). Evidence-based school counseling: Making a difference with data-driven practices. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Georgia Department of Education. (2008). Response to

intervention: Georgia’s achievement pyramid of

interventions. Atlanta, GA.

Metro GLRS. (2007). Georgia’s student Achievement

pyramid of interventions and rti: From understanding to

practice. Atlanta, GA.