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Enzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Enzymes

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  1. Enzymes

  2. The Drunk Man that Never Drank • Candida albicans – • Mutation to a fermenting • form

  3. Microbial metabolism includes fermentation • Metabolism definition • Anabolic vs catabolic • Both require enzymes

  4. Micro Focus 5.1 • Origin of the term enzyme – in yeast • Discovery by the Buchner brothers

  5. A. Characteristics of Enzymes

  6. 1. Enzymes Definition A reusable protein molecule that brings about chemical change while remaining unchanged itself.

  7. 2. General Characterisitics Highly Specific Sensitive to the environment May function in enzyme systems or pathways Enzyme names end in -ase

  8. B. Structure of Enzymes

  9. Apoenzyme • Large molecular wt. • All protein • Contains active site Holoenzyme + = • Coenzyme • Small molecular wt • Organic or • Cofactor • Inorganic • Metallic

  10. C. How Enzymes Work

  11. 2. Mechanism of activity Active Site Substrate Products

  12. C. Classification of Enzymes

  13. 3. Enzyme Classification Based on where the enzyme activity occurs. Exoenzymes Endoenzymes

  14. 3a. Enzyme Classification Based on type of enzyme function Oxidoreductase O/R reactions Electron transfer Transferase Moves organic functional groups Example: deaminase

  15. 3b. Enzyme Classification Based on type of enzyme function Hydrolases Hydrolysis reaction H and OH ions Bacterial enzymes Coagulase Fibrin formation Streptokinase Dissolves fibrin clots

  16. D. Influences on Enzyme Activity

  17. 1. Factors Temperature

  18. 2. Factors pH

  19. 3. Factors Substrate Concentration

  20. E. Enzyme Inhibition

  21. 1.Types of Inhibition Competitive Folic Acid inhibition by Sulfanilamide competition with PABA Noncompetitive Fluoride binding with Ca or Mg atoms in enzymes