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  1. Proposal Introduction Presentation By: Torie Lembersky

  2. Title of the study • Skipping Breakfast and its Effect on BMI and Subsequent Energy Intake Throughout the Day in Full Time College Students

  3. Background • The issue of breakfast consumption has been studied and well documented over the past 40 y. There has been a steady decline in breakfast consumption in US adults and children over the past 40 y which has coincided with an increase in the prevalence of obesity.1 • Although much has been studied on effects of breakfast on young children,1,2,3 very few studies have been done on studying the effects of breakfast on full time college students. • Therefore this study will focus on a sample from this specific population for the differences in BMI and energy intake between those that eat breakfast and those that do not.

  4. Background • Children were studied for the effects of consuming or not consuming breakfast on BMI and subsequent energy intake.1,2 Results found that hunger ratings were very high on days where children omitted breakfast.1 There was no significance in energy intake at subsequent meals between breakfast eaters and non breakfast eaters.1,2 • A study was conducted on undergraduate students at Cornell University was conducted to see if subsequent energy increased after skipping breakfast. It was controlled and participants were provided all meals at the testing center.4 Results of the study found that there was an increase of energy intake at lunch, but no statistical significance at any meal after this.4 • Many studies have been conducted where the meals were provided to subjects, but little to no studies have been conducted where participants made their own food choices.1,2,4

  5. Significance • The findings of this study will provide direction for the education on the relationship between skipping breakfast and obesity. • Options for education • Set up a table outside of the dining halls. Pass out pamphlets expressing the importance of breakfast consumption. • Conduct information sessions in the common areas of the dorms on campus. • Create posters to be posted inside of the dining halls.

  6. Study purpose • The purpose of this study is to determine whether skipping breakfast affects BMI. The other purpose of this study is to determine whether or not skipping breakfast causes an increase in energy consumption throughout the day.

  7. Research Hypothesis/Null Hypothesis • Research Hypotheses: • 1. Skipping breakfast correlates with an increase in BMI. • 2. Skipping breakfast correlates with an increase in subsequent energy intake. • Null Hypothesis: • 1. Skipping breakfast does not correlate with an increase in BMI. • 2. Skipping breakfast does not correlate with an increase in subsequent energy intake.

  8. Independent and Dependent Variables • Independent variable- Breakfast consumption • Dependent variable- BMI, subsequent energy intake throughout the day

  9. Methodology • Sampling Type- Convenience sampling • Recruitment- Pass out flyers at dining halls and at University hall. Sample size: 40 participants • Target Population- Full time college students at Montclair State University. • Eligibility Criteria- Participants must be healthy with no underlying health issues such as diabetes. Only full time college students are allowed to participate in the study • Questions will be asked in the beginning of the survey to determine if the student is eligible to participate in the study. Sample Questions: 1. Are you a full time college student? a. yes b. no 2. Do you have diabetes? a. yes b. no 3. Are you a student at Montclair State University? a. yes b. no

  10. Data Analysis Demography Data (Survey) • I am asking the age of the participants in the survey to see if age has any correlation between skipping breakfast by using the Pearson r correlation. 2. I am asking the gender of participants to use the chi-square test to determine if there is a significance between gender and skipping breakfast. Research Question (Survey)- These three questions were asked in the survey to answer the hypothesis using Pearson r correlation between skipping breakfast and BMI. 1. How tall are you? ______feet ______inches 2. How much do you weigh? ______pounds 3. How many times a week do you eat breakfast? Research Question (Food Records)- Participants will be asked to complete two food records. One on a day they ate breakfast and one on a day they did not eat breakfast. I will use ANOVA to see if the energy intake difference is significantly different between the two groups which are breakfast eaters vs. non breakfast eaters.

  11. References • 1. KralT, Whiteford L, Heo M, Faith M. Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children. Am J ClinNutr.[serial online]. February 2011;93(2):284-291. Available from: CINAHL Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 24, 2014. • 2. Coppinger T, Jeanes Y, Hardwick J, Reeves S. Body mass, frequency of eating and breakfast consumption in 9-13-year-olds. J Hum Nutr Diet[serial online]. February 2012;25(1):43-49. Available from: CINAHL Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 20, 2014. • 3. Tin S, Ho S, Mak K, Wan K, Lam T. Location of breakfast consumption predicts body mass index change in young Hong Kong children. Int J Obes[serial online]. July 2012;36(7):925-930. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 20, 2014. • 4. LevitskyD, Pacanowski C. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. PhysiolBehav.[serial online]. n.d.;119:9-16. Available from: Science Citation Index, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 24, 2014. • 5. GoyalR, Julka S. Impact of breakfast skipping on the health status of the population. Indian J EndocrinolMetab[serial online]. September 2014;18(5):683-687. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 20, 2014.

  12. References • 6. Reeves S, Huber J, Halsey L, Horabady-Farahan Y, Ijadi M, Smith T. Experimental manipulation of breakfast in normal and overweight/obese participants is associated with changes to nutrient and energy intake consumption patterns. PhysiolBehav. [serial online]. June 22, 2014;133:130-135. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 24, 2014. • 7. Ashwell M. An examination of the relationship between breakfast, weight and shape. Br J Nurs[serial online]. October 14, 2010;19(18):1155-1159. Available from: CINAHL Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 15, 2014. • 8. Fallaize R, Wilson L, Gray J, Morgan L, Griffin B. Variation in the effects of three different breakfast meals on subjective satiety and subsequent intake of energy at lunch and evening meal. Eur J Nutr[serial online]. June 2013;52(4):1353-1359. Available from: SPORTDiscus with Full Text, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 15, 2014. • 9. Reeves S, Halsey L, McMeel Y, Huber J. Breakfast habits, beliefs and measures of health and wellbeing in a nationally representative UK sample. Appetite [serial online]. n.d.;60:51-57. Available from: Science Citation Index, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 15, 2014. • 10. TolfreyK, Zakrzewski J. Breakfast, glycemic index and health in young people. J Sport Health Sci[serial online]. n.d.;1(3):149-159. Available from: Science Citation Index, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 15, 2014.