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National Workshop Auto Fuel Policy – Way Forward. R&D in Refinery Processes for Fuel Quality Upgradation. R.P. Verma Executive Director Indian Oil Corporation Limited R&D Centre, Faridabad . Discussion on ……. Current/future fuel specifications

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r d in refinery processes for fuel quality upgradation

National Workshop

Auto Fuel Policy – Way Forward

R&D in Refinery Processes for Fuel Quality Upgradation

R.P. Verma

Executive Director

Indian Oil Corporation Limited

R&D Centre, Faridabad

discussion on
Discussion on ……..
  • Current/future fuel specifications
  • Status & trends in technology for fuel quality upgradation
  • R&D’s role
  • Summary
slide3

ACID GAS

SULPHUR PLANT TAIL

GAS TREATING

ATM

TOWER

REFORMER

GASOLINE

LN

ISOMERIZATION

GASOLINE

HN

JET

Crude

DIESEL

JET/DIESEL

HT

JET/DIESEL

HGO

LVGO

VAC

TOWER

HCU

LCO

FCCG HDT

HVGO

GASOLINE

VGO HT

FCCU

JET/DIESEL HT

REFORMER

HCU/FCC

Coker / Visbreaker

SR

LSFO

Technologies used in Indian refineries for fuel quality upgradation

environmental regulations
Environmental Regulations
  • Rapid changes in combustion technologies & fuel specifications induced by Legislative bodies
  • Recommendation of Euro / BS specifications for India by Mashelkar Committee
gasoline specification trend
Gasoline Specification - Trend

* Proposed by World Fuel Charter

effect of gasoline specifications on major parameters
Effect of Gasoline Specifications on Major Parameters
  • Lower Sulfur content
  • Lower RVP
  • Lower benzene & aromatics
  • Lower olefin content
  • Limited Oxygen content
technologies for gasoline
Technologies for Gasoline
  • Reformer (Major technology for MS)
    • Technological / operational change
      • Low pressure operation
      • Change to CCR from SR
      • Pre-fractionation for Benzene Spec
      • Integration with Isomerisation unit
  • FCC (Major technology for MS)
    • Technological / operational change
      • Use of low ‘S’ crude, Hydrocracker bottom/ Hydrotreated feed for ‘S’ spec
      • Use of desulfurisation additives
      • Selective desulfurisation of FCCG
      • Treatment of heart-cut of FCCG in reformer

Contd.

technologies for gasoline contd
Technologies for Gasoline(Contd.)
  • Isomerisation
    • Ideal choice for upgrading light naphtha
    • Used for saturation of benzene also
    • Pt on Chlorinated alumina – most active catalyst
    • Zeolite catalyst based technology to be improved (more activity required)
  • Alkylation
    • No unit in India (High LPG demand)
    • Proven technology based upon HF / H2SO4 hazardous
    • Solid acid based process at development / demonstration stage
diesel specifications trend
Diesel Specifications- Trend

* Proposed by World Fuel Charter

effect of diesel specifications on major parameters
Effect of Diesel Specifications on Major Parameters
  • Low sulfur
  • Low aromatics / PAH
  • High cetane number
  • Lower density
  • Lower distillation end point
technologies to meet diesel specifications
Technologies to meet Diesel specifications
  • DHDS for meeting sulfur specifications
    • Intensive research on DHDS catalyst for improving activity
    • Development of high performance internals
  • High Pressure DHDT/MHC for Cetane improvement
    • Single stage units based upon non-noble metal catalysts
    • MHC an attractive option along with FCC
  • Hydrocracking process for best quality diesel
r d s role
R&D’s role
  • Technologies For Environ-friendly Fuels
  • Tailor-made Catalysts / Additives
  • Technologies For Future
  • Alternate Fuels
technologies for environ friendly fuels
Technologies For Environ-friendly Fuels

Conversion of Naphtha to LPG & MS:

  • Hydrocracking
    • Low pressure process of conversion of naphtha to auto-LPG and high octane, very low S MS component
  • Indalin +
    • Catalytic cracking process for conversion of naphtha to LPG and high-aromatics, low S MS component
  • Treating Process: IndeTreat/IndeSweet
    • Non-dispersive extractive process for desulfurisation of LPG and Naphtha

Contd.

technologies for environ friendly fuels contd
Technologies For Environ-friendly Fuels (Contd.)

DHDS / DHDT

  • Development of Hydroprocessing technology for production of ultra low sulfur and high Cetane diesel
    • Commercialisation at BRPL (with EIL) and at Paradip (with EIL and Shell)
  • Development of high performance DHDS catalyst
  • Hydrodynamic studies & development of reactor internals (with EIL)

Adsorptive desulfurisation

  • Reactive adsorption based process for desulfruisation
  • Most suitable as a finishing reactor

Isomerisation

  • Development of zeolyte based catalyst (jointly with IIP)
  • Process development
tailor made catalysts additives
Tailor-Made Catalysts / Additives

FCC catalysts & additives – Developed & commercialized by Indian Oil

  • Lotus-24 (Catalyst with higher LPG yield)
  • i-Max / Super i-Max (ZSM-5 additive)

Hydrocracking catalyst – Developed by Indian Oil

  • IZV (Along with M/s Zeolyst International) – For increase in LPG make (Commercialised)
  • IZN (Naphtha hydrocracking to LPG)
slide16

Technologies for future

Coal/residue/biomass gasification - Production of premium liquid fuels, hydrogen and / or power

  • Reactivity studies for Indian coal, petroleum residue, biomass and combination
  • Pilot plants for feasibility data generation

Gas to liquid technologies - High quality middle distillates

  • Development of catalysts
  • Pilot plant studies
slide17

Technologies for future

Bio-oil refining

  • Thermochemical Routes from Biomass to H2
    • Gasification/Water-Gas Shift
    • Supercritical Steam/Water Conversion
    • Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming
      • Does not require tricky gas clean-up step

Processing biomass has nearly zero net CO2 impact

slide18

Technologies for future

Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming

  • Liquid bio-oil can be pumped and has higher energy volumetric density than biomass
  • Can be processed in distributed systems
    • or at locations with existing hydrogen infrastructure in large-scale centralized reformers (earlier concept)
  • Can be co-processed with traditional fossil feedstocks
  • Biorefinery Integration
    • Produce from residues
alternate fuels
Alternate Fuels

Alternate fuels currently in use

  • CNG
  • LPG
  • Ethanol & Biodiesel

Emerging fuels & engine technologies

  • Bio-fuels
  • Hydrogen
  • Electric vehicles
  • Fuel cells

Considerable R&D activities in progress on bio-fuels, H2, HCNG, Fuel cells etc.

slide20

Hydrogen

  • Developments in H2 production from various sources – renewable & non-renewable
  • Environmental benefits realizable with use of H2 as neat fuel or in admixture with CNG in existing IC engines
  • High-energy conversion efficiencies & associated environmental benefits of emerging fuel cell technology
  • National Hydrogen Energy Board prepared an extensive report

IOC-R&D the nodal agency for research on Hydrogen fuel

summary
Summary
  • Environmental regulations have led to
    • Development in new processes / catalysts
    • Significant enhancement of catalyst performance
    • Re-orientation of technologies
    • Prominence of hydroprocessing
  • Innovative approach & new technologies and willingness to look beyond fossil fuels would sustain the industry in longer term