Denver Refinery High-Performance Team Training
Coaching Team Charter Meeting Effectiveness TEAMS Communication Diversity Teams and Team DevelopmentPutting the Pieces Together ... Problem Solving Decision Making Conflict Resolution
Team Charter Introduction to Teams Meeting Effectiveness TEAMS Communication Diversity Team Charter Problem Solving Decision Making Conflict Resolution
Team Charter Objective & Expected Results Objective: To introduce the concept of a team, what teams need, how teams evolve as individuals working together, and finally, the importance of a team charter, and its various components Expected Results: The group will understand: why teams are used to tackle problems, what teams should do in the earliest stage of their formation, how teams will evolve over time, and what the key ingredients are for a successful team. The team will also develop a Charter using the information presented along with inputs from their leader.
Team Charter Definition of Teams • Teams - Groups of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Examples of teams at the refinery include the Refinery Leadership Team. • Teams can often tackle complex and chronic problems and come up with effective, permanent solutions.
Team Charter Initial Team Goals • Get to know each other preferably on a personal level - (i.e.., Who are you?, What other jobs have you had? Family?, etc.) • Build trust (i.e.., “team build”) • Learn to work as a team - (i.e.., How can we take our collective experience and leverage it to accomplish the goals of our team?) • Get oriented to roles, scope, etc. • Agree on decision-making processes - (i.e.., How will we make decisions: by consensus, majority vote, etc..?) • Determine support services - (i.e.., What resources do we have available to us to clear barrier, meet our administrative needs, etc..?) • Set meeting ground rules - (i.e.., What rules can we develop for ourselves to govern our meetings and ensure progress?)
Team Charter Team Member Requirements Teams need: 1. Direction (key outcomes, measurements, goals) 2. Knowledge (skills, training, information) 3. Resources (tools, materials, facilities) 4. Support (approval, assistance, coaching, feedback, encouragement) How are these requirements met? 1. Well developed team charter and workplan. 2. Assistance from subject matter experts internally (i.e.., resources from various areas) and externally (i.e.., consultants, etc..) 3. Dedicated meeting rooms, team handbooks, computers, etc.. 4. Commitment from senior management and team sponsor.
Team Charter Evolution of Teams • “Forming” • Excitement, anticipation, and optimism • Defining tasks, determining acceptable group behavior • “Storming” • Resistance, change in attitude • Arguing between members, establishing unrealistic goals, disunity • “Norming” • Ability to criticize constructively, acceptance of members • More friendliness, team cohesion, establishing & maintaining team goals • “Performing” • Satisfaction with team progress • Close attachment to the team Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Team Charter What are some of the characteristics of an effective team?
Team Charter What are characteristics of individuals with whom you like to work on a team?
Team Charter Ingredients For a Successful Team IngredientModule Clearly Defined Team Objectives, Scope, Team Charter Roles & Responsibilities, Key Activities Key Deliverables, Critical Success Factors, Metrics, Risks, and Boundaries Clearly Defined Meeting Guidelines Meeting Effectiveness Cooperative, Committed, and Trusted Climate Team Effectiveness Clear, Effective, Constructive Communication Plan Communication Understanding of Problem Solving Techniques Problem Solving Well-defined Decision-making Processes Meeting Effectiveness & Decision Making Understanding of Conflict Resolution Conflict Resolution Techniques Awareness of Diversity Issues Diversity Understanding of Proper Coaching Techniques Coaching
Team Charter What is a Team Charter? • An agreement between the team and its sponsor • A communication tool between the project and the organization • A high-level guide for the project
Team Charter Purpose of a Charter • Defines scope of the work - (i.e.., What will the team do, and how long will it take?) • Defines key milestones and deliverables - (i.e.., What important events will be accomplished, and by when? What tangible outputs (usually documents) will be produced by the team?) • Identifies major activities - (i.e., What will the team do to accomplish its goals?) • Defines roles and responsibilities for each team member - (i.e., Who will do what work, etc?) • Defines critical success factors - (i.e., What events must occur to ensure success?) • Defines project risks - (i.e., What risks are we aware of that could impact the team’s ability to meet its objectives?) • Reduces unwanted variation from the original intent - (i.e., Sets boundaries for what the team will and will not do.) • Helps the team choose a framework to perform work - (i.e. Duration of work.)
Team Charter Components of a Team Charter Objectives: Goals of the team. Scope: Fundamental aspects of the project that will not change: objectives, limits, initial assumptions, timeframes. Roles/Responsibilities: Duties & assignments for each member of the team. Key Activities: Defined by the workplan to foster accomplishment of the project. Key Deliverables: Tangible outcomes of the project, usually in the form of documents. These should be tied directly to Key Activities. Timeline/Schedule: Target dates for completion of the project and its various phase, activities, etc. Milestones: Dates of key accomplishments of the team Critical Success Factors: Any factors that must occur to ensure success of the project. Metrics: Information looked at regularly and systematically to monitor, control, and improve our work. Risks: Anything that prevents the team from completing the key activities. Boundaries: Factors that limit the scope of work (e.g., timeframes)
Team Charter Example Team Charter
Team Charter Team Charter Activity Instructions: Develop a charter for a new team utilizing the following objective and scope. Objective: To improve Process & Mechanical relations at Denver Refinery. Scope: Plan an event, to be held at the Refinery by the end of the year, for all Process & Mechanical employees.
Team Charter Team Charter Validation Objective - Does it accurately described the project? Scope - Is the project well defined? Roles & Responsibilities - Have they been determined for all team members? Key Activities - Will they allow team to meet its objectives? Key Deliverables - Are they tangible, and do they demonstrate results? Timeline/Schedule- Is the schedule sufficient to finish the project on a timely basis? Milestones- Do they support accomplishment of the project? Critical Success Factors - Do they ensure team’s success? Metrics - Do they accurately measure results, and support critical success factors? Risks - Are they full documented, and do they significantly impede success? Boundaries - What elements are in, and out, of the project? Sponsor - Is the sponsor at a high enough level in the organization to clear barriers, provide resources, etc?
Team Charter Team Charter Validation ... Who validates the Charter? The team sponsor, and other key stakeholders of the project. What does the validation process A series of meetings with the sponsor and other consist of? stakeholders where representatives of the team talk through the various components of the Charter getting feedback and sign off on each part from the stakeholders. How does validation usually go? Each iteration usually brings fine-tuning to the respective components. Once all parties are in agreement, and support the team moving ahead with its efforts.
Meeting Effectiveness Coaching Team Charter TEAMS Communication Diversity Meeting Effectiveness Problem Solving Decision Making Conflict Resolution
Meeting Effectiveness Objective & Expected Results Objective: To introduce a team to effective meeting practices, including; ground rules, guiding principles, agendas, documentation, and evaluations. Expected Results: The team will develop and incorporate practices in its meetings to ensure success.
Meeting Effectiveness Why Have Meetings? Meetings should provide a: • Simple method for effective, direct, communication of information perceptions, concerns, etc. • Structured forum for reaching decisions and resolving conflicts. • Dedicated time to work on goals and objectives. • Gathering for face to face interactions and opportunities to develop familiarity, and trust as a team. • Place where outsiders can interface with all team members at the same time to communicate important information. • Facilitates involvement, input, and ownership in results. • Enables/supports easy clarification & elaboration of information and intent. Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Meeting Effectiveness General Meeting Guidelines Teams should commit to the following guidelines: Create meeting ground rules Create guiding principles Use agendas with clear definition of expected outcomes & processes Apply effective facilitation methods Manage meeting processes to achieve desired outcomes Document meetings Evaluate meetings (to identify & address problems early & to enable continual improvement in team effectiveness) Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988
Meeting Effectiveness Create Meeting Ground Rules Ground rules should be specific enough to enable easy compliance & enforcement. Examples of meeting ground rules: • Start all meetings on time • Establish an agenda and stick to it • Use a flip chart to record ideas • Everyone should participation • No side discussions • Test ideas for agreement • Document & distribute all meeting minutes and group decisions • Clarify follow-up responsibilities • Agenda will be developed for the next meeting Activity: Create meeting ground rules
Meeting Effectiveness Create Guiding Principles Guiding Principles are the key statements of belief as agreed upon by the team used to govern them in their activities. They should be regularly used by the team to test their activities, approaches, behaviors, etc., for appropriateness. Examples of Guiding Principles are: • We will plan and organize all activities to be successful • We will strive for minimal redundancy in our efforts • We will be proactive and not reactive in making decisions • Technology should be leveraged to provide operating efficiency whenever possible Activity: Create Guiding Principles
Meeting Effectiveness AGENDA Topic Presenter Time Use Agendas • Each meeting must have an agenda • It should be drafted prior to the actual meeting • It should be sent to participants in advance, if possible • If an agenda has not been developed before a meeting, spend the first five or ten minutes writing one on a flipchart • It should state the expected outcome of each topic • It should describe the basic process for the meeting, (i.e., presentation, discussion, activity, etc.)
AGENDA Topic Presenter Time Meeting Agenda Meeting Effectiveness • The meeting agenda is the most critical component of any meeting. The agenda defines the purpose, time contract, participants, and materials that will be required during a meeting. Because of this wealth of information, the agenda is a very useful tool planning a meeting.
Meeting Effectiveness Agendas should include the following information: • Agenda topics (e.g., a sentence or two that defines each item and why it is being discussed.) • Topic leaders/facilitators (e.g., usually the persons who originated the item or the persons most responsible or knowledgeable about it.) • Time guideline (e.g., the estimated time needed to discuss each item.) • Basic type of process to be used to achieve each outcome. • Clearly defined outcomes (e.g., discussion only, decision required, assignments of responsibility, etc.) • Critical attendees. Activity: Create a Sample Agenda Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Meeting Effectiveness General Guidelines for Managing Meetings Meeting participants should: • Listen actively to all information and discussions • Ask questions • Check for understanding • Paraphrase • Ask yourself: ‘How will I use information to drive for continuous improvement?” • Avoid personal attacks on others in the meeting • Be positive and keep discussions constructive • Participate and help drive the group toward accomplishment of its goals
Meeting Effectiveness Meeting Roles As part of the meeting plan, and agenda, each of the following roles should be clearly understood for each topic. • Leader • Facilitator • Scribe • Participant • Timekeeper • Process Observer Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Meeting Effectiveness Leader Role • Explains the purpose of the meeting and expected outcomes • Introduces key speakers and visitors • Ensures the meeting plans, and agenda are prepared • Validated the meeting agenda • Assists facilitator with decision making process on critical decisions (e.g., leads team to decisions, makes decisions when appropriate, etc.) Source: Conoco, Teamwork - A Team Development Workshop, 1993.
Meeting Effectiveness Facilitator Role • Ensures the process is well-defined, understood, and appropriate • Manages the meeting process to deliver objective outcomes • Enforces time contracts • Focuses meeting discussion to current topic • Focuses on the “process” more than “content” • Ensures balance, equal opportunity for participation and input • Enforces ground rules Source: Conoco, Teamwork - A Team Development Workshop, 1993.
Meeting Effectiveness Scribe Role • Records key meeting discussion points (i.e., minutes) and decisions • Verbally validates and summarizes decisions before documenting them • Produces a written summary of the meeting for project records and communications • Sometimes this role is filled by the Facilitator or Leader
Meeting Effectiveness Participant Role • Comes prepared to meetings having completed any requested pre-work • Participates actively in meetings • Does not attack other team member opinions • Provides constructive feedback & input • Follows up on assigned items or tasks • Assists & supports as a “process observer” Source: Conoco, Teamwork - A Team Development Workshop, 1993.
Meeting Effectiveness Timekeeper Role • Keeps time for the overall meeting and all agenda items • Advises the facilitator and group on progress versus time limits for each topic
Meeting Effectiveness Process Observer Role • Observes the group during discussion and activities watching for: • Adherence to ground rules and guiding principles • Adherence to agreed processes. • Timely, constructive intervention when agreed processes are not being followed or are clearly not effective. • Reports to the group at the end of the meeting on what they saw, and provides feedback on ways to improve the next meeting.
Meeting Effectiveness Typical Meeting Structure A meeting will typically have the following format: • Review of Agenda and Time Contract • Assignment of Meeting Roles • Review of Meeting Purpose • Brainstorming/Discussion • Consensus Development • Development of Path Forward Plans • Meeting feedback - e.g., “Likes”, “Changes”, and “Overall Rating” Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Meeting Effectiveness Documenting Meetings Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988. • Documentation serves the following purposes: • Keeping members informed of key points • Documenting key decisions • Recording assignments and commitments • Inventorying team activities • Listing the backlog of things to be done • Messages for inclusion in external communications • Key elements of meeting documentation are: • Date and time of meeting • Names of attendees • Topics covered with main points • Agreements/decisions reached • Next steps
Meeting Effectiveness Evaluate the meeting • An example is to ask the group to list the “Likes”, “Changes” and “Overall rating” for the meeting • Review and clarify suggested “changes” within the team for future applicability • Resolve or create plans to address “changes” as appropriate Other approaches • Use an evaluation checklist or form Likes Changes Overall Rating
Coaching Team Charter Meeting Effectiveness Decision Making TEAMS Communication Diversity Decision Making Problem Solving Conflict Resolution
Decision Making Objective & Expected Results Objective: To discuss several common decision making techniques, including “Divergent” and “Convergent” processes, and how they are used. Expected Results: The team will be able to use the techniques discussed, fostering full participation in making decision, and reducing the overall time required to make decisions.
Decision Making Identifying & Developing Alternatives(Techniques/Methods) Common ways to identify and develop alternatives include the use of “divergent processes” (i.e., those which generate a multitude of alternatives from different sources.) • Brainstorming • Research • Surveys
Decision Making Brainstorming • Encourage everyone to offer their ideas, in turn (i.e., Don’t hold back on any ideas even if they seem silly at the time, the more ideas the better.) • Maintain a fast pace. (To discourage “analysis”, “critiquing”, or “judgment”.) • No open discussion of ideas is allowed. • Encourage “hitchhiking”, “building”, or “triggering” of new ideas based on ideas generated by others in the group. • Write ALL ideas on a flipchart or post-its so the whole group can easily scan them. • See reference material from The Team Handbook Activity: Practice Brainstorming technique Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Decision Making Research & Surveys Research is done by collecting and analyzing a given set of data from various sources (e.g., Reference manuals on a subject, procedures, regulations.) Analysis of the data should be done to determine whether information supports a “best practice” to be used in the decision making process. Surveys are done by posing a given set of questions or choices to various individuals, or groups, asking them to provide responses. Survey results can then be factored into the decision making process based on opinions and preferences revealed by the survey.
Decision Making Divergent Processes
Decision Making Ways to Elicit Participation • Open the discussion with a brainstorm • If the facilitator or observer(s) notices that someone is not participating, then: • Ask people to write their ideas down on post-its • Go around the room asking each person to give their idea • Ask people to share their ideas with a partner and present the information collectively • Before concluding the session: • Go around the table again, and ask people one at a time if they support decisions made by the group • If there is disagreement, then ask them “What they would suggest for changes/improvements?”
Decision Making Selecting Alternatives(Techniques/Methods) “Convergent” Processes (i.e., moving toward one point) are used to select alternatives in the decision making process. Examples of “Convergent” processes include: • Multivoting • Nominal Group Technique • Majority Vote • Consensus • Team Leader
Decision Making Multivoting • Conducting one or more “polls” or “votes” to select the most important or preferred items from a list. • Limited discussion, and difficulty, as voting decides outcomes for group. • A repetitive process to systematically converge on the group’s best selection (e.g., with discussions between votes.) • See reference material from The Team Handbook Activity: Practice Multivoting technique Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Decision Making Nominal Group Technique • More structured approach than either brainstorming or multivoting. • Group generates a list of alternatives in writing, and discusses each (e.g., clarifications, elaboration's, pros & cons, etc.) • The systematic identification of either the “most” or “least preferable alternatives. • Effective tool when all or some group members are new to each other. • Good for highly controversial issues, with dominating or overbearing members, or when a team is stuck in disagreement. • See reference material from The Team Handbook Activity: Practice Nominal Group technique Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Decision Making Majority Vote • Decisions are made by the largest number in the group. • “Democratic” way of deciding on issues. • Vote (outcome) is used to set direction for group. • Is typically easy, fast, consistent way to make group decisions. • Inherently leads to “winners” and “losers” • Has potential to leave significant issues, problems, and needs unaddressed - leading to problems later. Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.
Decision Making Consensus • Is an agreement by each individual on the team to support (or not object to) decisions, recommendations, or positions taken by the team. • Is not...a unanimous vote -- Consensus may not reflect everyone’s first preference or priority. • Requires; time, active participation of all team members, skills in communication, and conflict resolution, a facilitated process, creative thinking and open-mindedness. • Each member must participate fully in the decision. • Group should decide ahead of time when it will seek for consensus vs. majority vote or another form of decision. • See reference material from The Team Handbook Activity: Practice Consensus technique Source: Jonier & Associates, The Team Handbook, 1988.