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Pylyshyn:. If you can’t rely on introspection of your conscious experience to tell you what’s going on in your mind, and if you can’t rely on looking inside the skull using biological techniques to tell you what psychological processes are taking place, then how in the world can you tell?.

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pylyshyn

Pylyshyn:

If you can’t rely on introspection of your conscious experience to tell you what’s going on in your mind,

and

if you can’t rely on looking inside the skull using biological techniques to tell you what psychological processes are taking place,

then how in the world can you tell?

slide2
Examining relation of input to output is not adequate:

May lead to predictions but does not tell you how the mind works.

slide3
Errors

and

Response Time

lashley s approach to the problem of serial order
Lashley’s approach to the problem of serial order
  • NOT chain of reflexes whereby each element of series provides excitation of the next
  • Untenable:

E.g., “Right” and “tire” involve same motor movements but in different order. Order must be imposed by some organization other than direct associative connections between them.

slide5
Similar argument for words in a sentence.

E.g., same word can be many parts of speech and thus would appear in different positions in sentence: “The mill-wright on my right thinks it right that some conventional right…”

slide6
Central mechanism also suggested by timing in rapid movement

e.g., finger strokes of musician..

16 strokes/sec. Too quick for sensory control of movement

slide7
Evidence from errors in language production:allow inferences about otherwise hidden mechanisms underlying language production
  • they are non-random and predictable
    • Exchange involves units of the same size and same syntactic class
  • Many involve abstract discrete elements of sound called phonemes (can’t find a phoneme in acoustic signal)
slide8
Typing errors:

misplaced doubling, e.g., ill as iil

  • Speech errors:

spoonerisms- exchange of sounds within an utterance

slide9
Reverend Spponer:

“You have tasted the whole worm.”

“You have hissed all my mystery lectures.”

“Take the flea of my cat and heave it at the louse of my mother-in-law.”

exchanges between words
Exchanges between words:
  • George W. Bush:

“We have to get the hands out of the guns of people”

slide11
Perseverations:

“Class is about discussing the text”  “Class is about discussing the class”

“How the leaflet’s written  leaflet’s litten

Anticipations:

“Sun is in the sky”  Sky is in the sky”

“It’s a real mystery”  meal mystery

slips of the tongue rare one per 1 000 words
Slips of the tongue rare: one per 1,000 words
  • Use experimental techniques to induce more frequent errors:
  • Motley Baars & Mackay:
slide13
rich miss

rinse mint

rays maim

meal reek

Spoonersim more likely when word is possible than nonword, e.g., mean reap

tongue twister
Tongue twister
  • Proper copper coffee pot
  • A bucket of blue bug’s blood
slide15
Freudian slips:

George H.W. Bush:

“I don’t want to run the risk of ruining what is a lovely recession” (reception)

A famous general was described as “a battle scared, excuse me I mean bottle scarred general” (battle scarred)

slide16
These regularities in errors suggest central mechanisms that order sounds in words and words in sentence
  • Exchanges and anticipations clear evidence against chaining- downstream units occur earlier in sequence
  • Dell argues errors are sign of creativity in system, i.e., we BUILD a representation rather than RETRIEVE a representation
slide17
Syntactic category rule: nouns slip with nouns, verbs with verbs. Dell argues that sentences built by putting words in labeled slots in syntactic frames.
slide18
Erroneous word often related to target word semantically and phonologically. Interpreted as evidence of spreading activation
how can time to make a correct response reveal mental processes
How can time to make a correct response reveal mental processes
  • Vary some property of task and measure effect on response time
  • Sternberg demonstrated in elegant experiment
slide23
9

4

7

1

6

8

3

2

meyer schvanevelt 1971
Meyer & Schvanevelt, 1971

Lexical decision (is it a word?)

slide35
Lexical decisions were faster for words following semantically related rather than unrelated words

RelatedUnrelated

NURSE STREET

DOCTOR DOCTOR

650 ms 690 ms