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Prevention. Any organizational activity aimed at keeping unlawful behavior from occurring or keeping such behavior to a minimum and avoiding intervention Prevention in general Primary, secondary, tertiary. Difficulty of evaluating prevention. Correlational

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  1. Prevention • Any organizational activity aimed at keeping unlawful behavior from occurring or keeping such behavior to a minimum and avoiding intervention • Prevention in general • Primary, secondary, tertiary

  2. Difficulty of evaluating prevention • Correlational • If nothing happens, was it because of prevention. Tiger prevention • Secular drift • Resistance of politicians, public, etc.

  3. Theories • Deterrence • Biological explanations (genetics, health care, diet) • Psychological characteristics: aggression, hyperactivity, impulsivity, intelligence, moral development

  4. Theories • Sociological • Differential association, social/self control • Ecological • Strain, opportunity, middle class measuring rod • Economics, relative deprivation

  5. Theories • Conflict

  6. Crime prevention study • University of Maryland • Rated studies on such aspects as • Control of other variables • Statistical power • Research design: • Correlations, temporal sequence, comparisons, random assignment and comparisons

  7. Study • Evaluation of history, chance factors, selection bias • Evaluated studies and examined results • What works, what doesn’t work, what’s promising

  8. What doesn’t work • Gun buyback programs • Community mobilization in high crime inner city areas • Home visits by police to couples after domestic violence • Individual and peer counseling of students

  9. What doesn’t work • DARE • Summer jobs for at-risk youths • School-based leisure time enrichment programs • Short term nonresidential training programs

  10. What doesn’t work • Neighborhood watch, esp. in high crime areas where voluntary participation needed • Arrests of juveniles for minor offenses (backfires) • Arrests of unemployed suspects for domestic assault

  11. What doesn’t work • Increased raids on drug markets • Storefront police officers • Correctional boot camps • Scared Straight • Shock sentences • Home detention and EM for low-risk offenders

  12. What doesn’t work • ISP • General counseling of offenders • Residential programs for juvenile offenders in rural settings (outward bound, etc)

  13. What works • Frequent home visits to infants • Preschool and weekly home visits by teachers to children under 5 • Family therapy and parent training about delinquent and at-risk preadolescents

  14. What works • Clarifying and communicating norms about behavior through rules and schoolwide initiatives (such as antibullying campaigns) in schools • Life Skills Training programs, teaching such skills to youths as stress management, problem-solving, self-control

  15. What works • Training in thinking skills to high-risk youths • Ex-offender job training for old males • Nuisance abatement (threatening civil action against landlords for not addressing drug dealing and crime on premises)

  16. What works • Extra police patrols in high crime hot spots • Repeat offender units • Arresting domestic abusers if they are employed • Incarceration of repeat offenders who will continue to commit crimes

  17. What works • Rehabilitation programs for offenders using treatments appropriate to their risk factors • Therapeutic community programs in prisons

  18. What’s promising • Gang offender monitoring • Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America • Community based afterschool recreation programs • Battered women’s shelters seems to work if the women take further steps • School within schools

  19. What’s promising • Job Corps • Prison-based vocational education programs in the federal prisons • Dispersing inner-city public housing residents to scattered suburban public housing (reduced crime, high school dropout and parental unemployment

  20. What’s promising • Enterprise zones with tax-break incentives in areas of high unemployment

  21. What’s promising: deterrence • 2nd clerk in already robbed convenience stores • Redesigning layout of retail stores to reduce shoplifting • Training and management of bar staff reduces tavern violence and accidents • Metal detectors in schools reduce weapon carrying (although not assaults)

  22. What’s promising • Airport metal detectors • Sky marshals • Street closures, barricades and rerouting • Target hardening • Problem-solving analysis addressed to the specific crime situation

  23. What’s promising • Arrests for carrying unauthorized concealed weapons • Community policing reduces community perceptions of crime severity • Polite Field interrogations of suspicious persons • Higher numbers of police officers (some cities)

  24. What’s promising • Drug courts • Drug treatment in jails followed by urine testing in the community • Intensive supervision and aftercare of minor juvenile offenses (runaways, truants) reduced future offending for first time offenders (but not multiple)

  25. What’s promising • Intensive supervision and aftercare of serious juvenile offenders • Fines • Day fines for technical violations

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