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Modeling the Human Spine. By: Benjamin Arai & Conley Read. CS231 Project, Spring 2005 University of California, Riverside Professor: Victor Zordan. Abstract. Related works to spine modeling Anatomical Spine Initial Pose User Interface User input to spine position

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modeling the human spine

Modeling the Human Spine

By: Benjamin Arai & Conley Read

CS231 Project, Spring 2005

University of California, Riverside

Professor: Victor Zordan

abstract
Abstract
  • Related works to spine modeling
  • Anatomical Spine
  • Initial Pose
  • User Interface
  • User input to spine position
  • Animation of human spine
motivation
Motivation
  • Efficiency vs. Accuracy
  • Proper modeling of the human body
  • Towards single person animation modeling
  • Current approaches and lack of expression
anatomical spine
Anatomical Spine
  • Spine
    • Cervical region
      • (C1 - C7)
      • Created from load from the weight of the head
      • (20 -40) degrees
    • Thoracic region
      • (T1 – T12)
      • Kyphosis Curve
      • (< 40 – 50) degrees
    • Lumbar region
      • (L1 – L5)
      • Weight Bearing
    • Spine makes an “S”-like curve
anatomical spine5
Anatomical Spine
  • Vertebra
    • Born with 33 vertebra
    • 9 fused during childhood to create the sacrum and coccygeal bones
  • Intervertebral Discs
    • Round in shape
    • Elastic type structure
implementation
Implementation
  • Modeling the spine in 3D
  • Initial Spine pose
  • Efficiency
  • User Interface
  • Translation from input to positions
  • Computing (x, y, z) components
  • Computing flexion
  • Final pose
  • Animation
modeling the human spine in 3d
Modeling the Human Spine in 3D
  • Model taken from the University of Princeton’s 3D Model Search Engine
  • Mesh components imported to OpenGL
  • Modeling portion used only vertebra and not intervertebral discs
initial spine pose
Initial Spine Pose
  • Per Vertebra Mapping
    • Individual vertebra require user parameters defined
    • Benefits include the ability to define expressive poses
    • Method is time consuming
  • Abstract Spine Mapping
    • Simple control structure
    • May not be able to express certain poses given limited control structure
  • Unification of Direct & Abstract Mapping
    • Simplifies control structure
    • Maps inputs to larger quantized regions for one-to-many mapping
    • Mimics human interaction with spine
mapping user input to the spine
Mapping User Input to the Spine
  • Each region of the spine contains a certain coefficient (C, T, L)
  • Coefficients are applied to each of the vertebra
  • Individual vertebra contain a combination of each curve coefficient

,

,

vertebra weighting
Vertebra Weighting
  • Individual participation values are summed to created a weighted sum
  • Each vertebra contains a unique summed weight according to its location

,

,

distribution of weights
Distribution of Weights
  • Left: Weights computed from the spine regions for each of the vertebra
  • Right: Participation rates computed for each of the vertebra and there respective regions
user interface
User Interface
  • The interface is based on a small number of input parameters:
    • Input Boxes: Coefficients: C, T, L
    • Slider: Controls the rotation: theta
    • Slider: Directional weights for each of the regions
      • x and z Cervical
      • x and z Thoracic
      • x and z Lumbar
example of user interface
Example of User Interface
  • All sliders default to zero for movement in both the negative and positive directions
  • Default coefficient (C, T, L) values represent representative constraints for a average human spine
computing x y z components
Computing (x,y,z) Components
  • X-Y Component
    • y = cos ( -angle_x ) * intervertebral_distance
    • x = sin ( -angle_x ) * intervertebral_distance
  • Z-Y Component
    • y = cos ( -angle_z ) * intervertebral_distance
    • z = sin ( -angle_z ) * intervertebral_distance
  • We calculate each vertebra location in its own coordinate space
computing the flexion
Computing the Flexion
  • Pitch
      • angle_x = Wx * wi * π
  • Roll
      • angle_z = Wz * wi * π
  • Yaw
      • angle_y = wi * Θ