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Ideology: definitions Webster--3a “A systematic scheme or coordinated body of ideas or concepts esp. about human life or culture” Webster--3c(1) “The integrated assertions, theories, and aims that constitute a sociopolitical program.” Ozhegov--”A system of views and ideas, a worldview.”

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ideology definitions
Ideology: definitions
  • Webster--3a “A systematic scheme or coordinated body of ideas or concepts esp. about human life or culture”
  • Webster--3c(1) “The integrated assertions, theories, and aims that constitute a sociopolitical program.”
  • Ozhegov--”A system of views and ideas, a worldview.”
topics of discussion
Topics of Discussion
  • American ideology
  • Russian ideology
  • Soviet ideology: Marxism-Leninism
  • The Russian Revolutions
american ideology
American Ideology
  • Individual rights
  • Democracy: majority rule
  • Capitalism: profit
russian ideology
Russian Ideology
  • Divine right: the tsar is the link between Russia and God
  • Russian Orthodoxy is the only true religion
  • All power flows downward from tsar to people: absolute monarchy
  • Russia’s great destiny depends on this divine link
comparative poles
Individual

Freedom

Privacy

Materialistic

Pragmatic

Inequality

Collective

Control

Community

Idealistic

Ideological

Equality

Comparative Poles
soviet ideology marxism
Soviet Ideology: Marxism
  • Communist Manifesto published by Marx and Engels, 1848
    • Social injustice of capitalism
    • Exploitation of the proletariat: workers produce value
    • Bourgeois capitalists: own means of production but do no work
    • Workers of the world, unite!
marxist premises
Marxist Premises
  • All history is the history of class struggles
  • Economic relations are the basis of all other social relationships
  • Class consciousness is determined
  • Religion is an “opiate”: atheism
  • Dialectical materialism
dialectical materialism
Dialectical materialism
  • Hegel’s historical teleology + Darwin’s natural selection
  • Thesis--Antithesis--Synthesis
  • Quantitative change leads to qualitative change
  • Class struggle inevitably leads to revolutionary overthrow of capitalism
  • Withering away of the state
communist party
Communist Party
  • Paris Commune: Revolution of 1848
  • Vanguard of the proletariat
    • Elite, small group
    • Conscious, trained Marxists
    • Lead, educate illiterate workers, bring them to revolutionary consciousness
communist platform
Communist Platform
  • Abolition of land ownership
  • Heavy graduated income tax
  • Abolition of right of inheritance
  • Centralization of banking, communication, transportation
  • State control of more enterprises
  • Equal liability of all to work
  • Free public education for all children
soviet ideology leninism
Soviet Ideology: Leninism
  • Social Democratic Party
  • Mensheviks (“minority”)
    • Orthodox Marxists
    • Russia must become industrialized, develop a proletariat
    • Then have revolution
  • Bolsheviks (“majority”): Lenin
    • Russia can skip stages
    • Go directly for revolution
russian revolutions
Russian Revolutions
  • 1905--January 9 (Bloody Sunday)
    • Major social upheavals
    • Russo-Japanese War
    • Creation of first Duma
  • February Revolution (bourgeois), 1917
    • Abdication of the tsar (March)
    • Provisional Government (Kerensky)
    • Continued with war effort
october revolution
October Revolution
  • Lenin returns from exile in April, 1917
    • April Theses:
      • Withdraw from war
      • Power to the soviets of workers and soldiers
      • Land to the peasants
  • Oct. 25 O.S.--Nov. 7 N.S.
  • Bolsheviks take power in Petrograd
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