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History 156 16: The 1970s and the Roots of WWIV PowerPoint Presentation
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History 156 16: The 1970s and the Roots of WWIV - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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History 156 16: The 1970s and the Roots of WWIV. October 6, 1973, Egypt and Syria attack Israel, beginning the 19-day Yom Kippur War.

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History 156

16: The 1970s and the Roots of WWIV

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Responding to the American support of Israel in the Yom Kippur war, Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich middle eastern states form OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

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FDR meets with Ibn Saud, King of Saudi Arabia, in 1945, offering the Saudi’s a promise of security in exchange for easy American access to cheap Saudi oil

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Political cartoon from 1976 expressing the increasing realization that the American lifestyle was built on cheap oil

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The 1973 Cadillac

The 1973 Mercury Marquis

The 1970s version of the SUV, typically getting less than 10 mpg; overall average for 1973 cars was 13.1 mpg

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President Ford stumbles on wet stairs in 1975, seen by some as symbolic of his stumbling economic policies

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Map illustrating proximity of Three Mile Island nuclear reactors to major population centers

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For decades the Middle East and Persian Gulf states had been central to American foreign policy because of their large oil reserves

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The Iranian Revolution of February, 1979, which deposed the Shah and established an Islamic theocracy under the Ayatollah Khomeini

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Jimmy Carter’s famous “Crisis of Confidence” speech of July 15, 1979:

“In a nation that was proud of hard work, strong families, close-knit communities, and our faith in God, too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does, but by what one owns. But we’ve discovered that owning things and consuming things does not satisfy our longing for meaning. We’ve learned that piling up material goods cannot fill the emptiness of lives which have no confidence or purpose.”

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December of 1979, the Soviet Union invades Afghanistan to prop up a faltering Marxist regime, bring them dangerously close to Persian Gulf oil fields

Soviet helicopter gun ships during the disastrous Soviet-Afghanistan War, 1979-1988

the carter doctrine
The Carter Doctrine
  • Result of the Iranian crisis, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and widespread public rejection of his domestically based attempt to decrease US dependency on foreign oil, Carter does an about face
  • The Carter Doctrine (January 1980): “An attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.”
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Iranian officials survey the remains of the disastrous American attempt to rescue the hostages in April of 1980

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WW IV

February 1991: In the First Persian Gulf War American soldiers removed Saddam Hussein from Kuwait and thwarted his hopes of eventually taking control of much of the Persian Gulf oil wealth

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WW IV

The massive American bombing of Baghdad in March of 2003 that began the Second Persian Gulf War—President Bush’s attempt to transform the Persian Gulf and its vast oil supplies into a democratic, pro-American region

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This morning’s Bozeman Daily Chronicle

Twenty-five years after Carter tried and failed to wean the American people off foreign oil, and after 25 years of WWIV, President Bush returns to the search for a technological solution: Nuclear power, fuel-efficient cars, cleaner coal plants, more oil refineries