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Learning to Translate. (native speakers). Source: Global Reach (www.glreach.com). (number of people online in each “language zone”, I think). Source: Global Reach (www.glreach.com), 11/2003. Machine Translation in the 1950’s.

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learning to translate

Learning to Translate

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

slide2

(native speakers)

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

Source: Global Reach (www.glreach.com)

slide3

(number of people online in each “language zone”, I think)

Source: Global Reach (www.glreach.com), 11/2003

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

machine translation in the 1950 s
Machine Translation in the 1950’s
  • “We’ll have this up and running in a few years, it’ll be great, give us lots of $$$”
  • Oops! Foundered on word-sense disambiguation.
  • Nearly sank funding for all of AI.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

currently available technology
Currently available technology

(L&H translator, via Japanese)

At the beginning a god created Hajime for the sky and the earth. The earth is frozen as missing, formlessly, darkness was frozen as ceasing, and superficially, deeply, then a divine mind moved on a surface of water.

(Babelfish translator, via Japanese)

God drew up the heaven and the earth with beginning. The earth the formless and was invalid, as for the darkness there was a surface being deep, mind of God was moving to the surface of the water.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

the rosetta stone 196 bc

Egyptian:

hieroglyphs

(used from 3300 BC – 400 AD)

The Rosetta Stone (196 BC)

Egyptian:

Demotic

(a late cursive script)

found 1799; hieroglyphs decoded in 1822 by Champollion

Greek

(the language of Ptolemy V, ruler of Egypt)

6 feet tall

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

the online bible as rosetta stone
The online Bible as Rosetta Stone

English: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Spanish: En el principio crió Dios los cielos y la tierra.

French: Au commencement Dieu créa les cieux et la terre.

Haitian: Nan konmansman, Bondye kreye syèl laak latèa.

Danish: Begyndelsen skabte Gud Himmelen og Jorden.

Swedish: I begynnelsen skapade Gud himmel och jord.

Finnish: Alussa loi Jumala taivaan ja maan.

Greek: En arch epoihsen o Qeoz ton ouranon kai thn ghn.

Latin: in principio creavit Deus caelum et terram

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

the online bible as rosetta stone10
The online Bible as Rosetta Stone

English:In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Spanish: En el principio crió Dios los cielos y la tierra.

French: Au commencement Dieu créa les cieux et la terre.

Haitian: Nan konmansman, Bondye kreye syèl laak latèa.

Danish: Begyndelsen skabte Gud Himmelen og Jorden.

Swedish: I begynnelsen skapade Gud himmel och jord.

Finnish: Alussa loi Jumala taivaan ja maan.

Greek: En arch epoihsen o Qeoz ton ouranon kai thn ghn.

Latin: in principio creavit Deus caelum et terram

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

the online bible as rosetta stone11
The online Bible as Rosetta Stone

English:In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Spanish: En el principio crió Dios los cielos y la tierra.

French: Au commencement Dieu créa les cieux et la terre.

Haitian: Nan konmansman, Bondye kreye syèl laak latèa.

Danish: Begyndelsen skabte Gud Himmelen og Jorden.

Swedish: I begynnelsen skapade Gud himmel och jord.

Finnish: Alussa loi Jumala taivaan ja maan.

Greek: En arch epoihsen o Qeoz ton ouranon kai thn ghn.

Latin: in principio creavit Deus caelum et terram

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

the online bible as rosetta stone12
The online Bible as Rosetta Stone

English:In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Spanish: En el principio crió Dios los cielos y la tierra.

French: Au commencement Dieu créa les cieux et la terre.

Haitian: Nan konmansman, Bondye kreye syèl laak latèa.

Danish: Begyndelsen skabte Gud Himmelen og Jorden.

Swedish: I begynnelsen skapade Gud himmel och jord.

Finnish: Alussa loi Jumala taivaan ja maan.

Greek: En arch epoihsen o Qeoz ton ouranon kai thn ghn.

Latin: in principio creavit Deus caelum et terram

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

where s heaven in vietnamese
Where’s “heaven” in Vietnamese?

English: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

English: God called the expanse heaven.

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròi dat tên khoang không la tròi.

English: … you are this day like the stars of heaven in number.

Vietnamese: … các nguoi dông nhu sao trên tròi.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

where s heaven in vietnamese14
Where’s “heaven” in Vietnamese?

English: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

English: God called the expanse heaven.

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròi dat tên khoang không la tròi.

English: … you are this day like the stars of heaven in number.

Vietnamese: … các nguoi dông nhu sao trên tròi.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

created in vietnamese
“Created” in Vietnamese?

English: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

English: God created the great sea monsters …

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên các loài cá lón …

English: God created man in His own image …

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên loài nguòi nhu hình Ngài …

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

created in vietnamese uh oh
“Created” in Vietnamese? Uh-oh

English: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

English: God created the great sea monsters …

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên các loài cá lón …

English: God created man in His own image …

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên loài nguòi nhu hình Ngài …

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

god has a stronger claim
“God” has a stronger claim …

English: In the beginning Godcreated the heavens and the earth.

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên tròi dât.

English: Godcreated the great sea monsters …

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên các loài cá lón …

English: Godcreated man in His own image …

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròi dung nên loài nguòi nhu hình Ngài …

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

created makes do with rest
… “created” makes do with rest

English: In the beginning Godcreated the heavens and the earth.

Vietnamese: Ban dâu Ðúc Chúa Tròidung nên tròi dât.

English: Godcreated the great sea monsters …

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròidung nên các loài cá lón …

English: Godcreated man in His own image …

Vietnamese: Ðúc Chúa Tròidung nên loài nguòi nhu hình Ngài …

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

what s bathroom in vietnamese
What’s “bathroom” in Vietnamese?
  • Bible only gives you “begat,” not “bathroom” – but web is much bigger
  • Find bilingual web pages automatically
    • “Click for English / Français”
    • Government, tourist, commercial, tech …
  • Run this strategy on them automatically
  • Get a dictionary
  • Uses: multilingual search, translation aid …

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

competitive linking algorithm
Competitive Linking Algorithm

… nod your head … wag your tail … head of the class … swollen head …

… hochez la tête … hochez la queue … en tête de la classe … bouffant d’orgeuil …

Headhochez … but often paired

head = tête … though not always

nod = hochez … though not always

  • Link words that look alike or often go together.
  • Make a tentative French-English dictionary of linked words.
    • (or if such a dictionary exists already, maybe you can convince the publisher to give you the typesetting files – will work better)

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

competitive linking algorithm21
Competitive Linking Algorithm

… nod your head … wag your tail … head of the class … swollen head …

… hochez la tête … hochez la queue … en tête de la classe … bouffant d’orgeuil …

Headhochez … but often paired

head = tête … though not always

nod = hochez … though not always

  • Link words that look alike or often go together.

2. Make a tentative French-English dictionary of linked words.

3. Use the dictionary to greedily guess each word’s best link.

4. Use the links to get a better dictionary.

5. Repeat!

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

slide22

pobj

S

mod

The urgent responseto

...

mod

PLACE

JJ

NNS

VBG

IN

NNP

NNP

[

]

… .

[National laws ] applying in [Hong Kong ]

JJ

JJ

NN

NN

National laws applying in Hong Kong

mod

pobj

subj

mod

mod

PLACE

JJ

NNS

VBG

IN

NNP

NNP

[National laws ] applying in [Hong Kong ]

National laws applying in Hong Kong

StatisticalModel

[

]

[

]

IN

NNP

NNP

VBG

VBG

JJ

JJ

JJ

NNS

NNS

training

of

Hong

In

implementing

national

law(s)

Kong

PLACE

mod

subj

mod

Translingual Knowledge Projection and Statistical Machine Translation

24 hours!

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

noisy channel model chinese as garbled english
Noisy Channel Model:Chinese as Garbled English

The urgent responseto …

E =

Given input C,software chooses Ethat maximizes

p(English=E) xp(Chinese=C | English=E)

StatisticalModel

C =

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

latin as garbled english
Latin as Garbled English

E=Topmost with praise?

high p(L|E) but low p(E)

E=Burger with fries?

high p(E) but low p(L|E)

With highesthonors

E =

maximizes p(E)*p(L|E)

New Statistical Language Software

L =

summa cum laude

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner

what are the models
What are the models?
  • Source model p(E) could be trigram model
    • Guarantees semi-fluent English
  • Channel model p(C|E) or p(L|E) could be finite-state transducer
    • Stochastically translates each word + allows a little random rearrangement – with high prob, words stay more or less put
    • Maximizing p(C|E) would give really lousy Chinese translation of English
      • Random word translation is stupid – need word sense from context
      • Random word rearrangement is stupid – phrases rearrange!
      • This channel has no idea what fluent Chinese looks like
    • But maximizing p(E)*p(C|E) gives a better English translation of Chinese because p(E) knows what English should look like.
  • Currently trying to make these models less stupid.

600.465 - Intro to NLP - J. Eisner