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Leadership Across Differences Model

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  1. Framework Leadership Across Differences Model Table of Contents • What is the leadership challenge? • Why Leadership Across Differences? • What is the question we seek to address? • How are we investigating this question? • What are the project goals? • What is the purpose of the project framework? • How is the current iteration of the framework organized? • Building the Framework • Framework

  2. Back Framework Table of Contents What is the Leadership Challenge? In a diverse and globally interconnected world, a major leadership challenge is, and will increasingly be, the need for shared direction, alignment, and commitment within a context of difference.

  3. Back Framework Table of Contents Why Leadership Across Differences? Due to increasing globalization, technology, civil rights legislation, immigration, and new organizational forms, groups of people who have historically been kept apart are now increasingly working together in organizational settings.

  4. Back Framework Table of Contents What is the question we seek to address? Given this context, the primary research question of the Leadership Across Differences (LAD) project is: What are the leadership processes by which organizations create shared direction, alignment, and commitment within a context of difference?

  5. Back Framework Table of Contents How are we investigating this question? Given the complexity of this leadership challenge, we are using a multi-method, multi-level design that is grounded in different approaches such as comparative case study and grounded theory. We are investigating this research question in 11 different countries across 5 continents. A variety of strategies are being used to gather information including literature reviews, interviews, surveys, and media scans. We are also employing a variety of analysis techniques in order to examine and articulate the core relationships and trends we observe.

  6. Back Framework Table of Contents What are the project goals? The overarching objectives of the Leadership Across Differences project are: • To generate new knowledge necessary to understand the dynamics of leadership within a context of difference; and • To develop new interventions, tools, and techniques to help individuals and organizations create shared direction, alignment, and commitment within a context of difference.

  7. Back Framework Table of Contents What is the purpose of the project framework? To better understand the leadership processes organizations use within a context of difference and to capture our understanding as it emerges, we are developing successive iterations of the project framework, titled “A Model of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace.” Similar to the concept of prototyping and emergent modeling, each iteration of the framework helps us to think through the questions we are currently trying to solve. Soliciting rich and diverse feedback is the central mechanism by which new insights are gained around these questions. Once solutions to these questions are reached, a new iteration of the framework can be developed and the cycle repeats anew. This cycle is illustrated to the right:

  8. Back Framework Table of Contents How is the current iteration of the framework organized? The 2nd iteration of the framework is focused at the organizational level and organized into three basic elements: Leadership Contexts and Challenges, Leadership Processes and Actions, and Leadership Outcomes. At its most basic level, the framework states that various leadership contexts and challenges relate to a number of different leadership processes and actions that lead to leadership outcomes which, in turn, relates back to leadership contexts and challenges We have organized the model to flow from left to right, but the interplay between different elements is neither linear nor mechanistic. In the next slides we provide an overview of the framework. Specific terms are defined and explored in the attached glossary.

  9. A Framework of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace TOC Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership Outcomes • Direction – extent to which the organization has shared understanding. Indicators include: • Inclusive/exclusive mission • Positive/negative climate for innovation Individual Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Individual Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Trigger/Polarizing Event Spillover • Alignment – extent to which the organization has shared coordination. Indicators include: • Workforce efficiency/inefficiency • HR Policy integration/fragmentation Organizational Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Organizational Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) • Commitment – extent to which the organization has shared motivation. Indicators include: • Employee trust/distrust • Employee engagement/disengagement Interventions Leadership Contexts & Challenges Leadership Contexts and Challenges: Defined as societal-level inputs (e.g. identity group history; cultural values; political/legal environment) that “spillover” into organizational settings. Spillover from the society at large influences several organizational factors (e.g. mission and values; workforce demographics; the nature and type of work) and creates the context for a trigger or catalyst related to social identity differences. A trigger is an issue or event that makes social identity salient. • Societal Factors: • Cultural Values • Identity Group History • Political Environment • Legal Environment/ Justice System • Economic Forces • Religious Environment • Workforce Demography • Organizational Factors: • Mission & Values • Interdependency of work • Organizational Demography & Dynamics (Faultlines) • Organizational Learning Paradigms Feedback Loop

  10. A Framework of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace TOC Leadership Contexts & Challenges Leadership Outcomes • Societal Factors: • Cultural Values • Identity Group History • Political Environment • Legal Environment/ Justice System • Economic Forces • Religious Environment • Workforce Demography • Organizational Factors: • Mission & Values • Interdependency of work • Organizational Demography & Dynamics (Faultlines) • Organizational Learning Paradigms • Direction – extent to which the organization has shared understanding. Indicators include: • Inclusive/exclusive mission • Positive/negative climate for innovation Individual Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Individual Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Trigger/Polarizing Event Spillover • Alignment – extent to which the organization has shared coordination. Indicators include: • Workforce efficiency/inefficiency • HR Policy integration/fragmentation Organizational Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Organizational Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) • Commitment – extent to which the organization has shared motivation. Indicators include: • Employee trust/distrust • Employee engagement/disengagement Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership Processes & Actions: Defined as the processes and actions that impact an organization’s capability to achieve the leadership outcomes of shared direction, alignment, and commitment in a context of difference. As shown in the various boxes, there are a variety of ways in which these outcomes can be achieved – from the action of individuals in authority to the interactions between groups of individuals who share work, from the influence of formal organizational policies and procedures to the influence of informal organizational values, beliefs, and culture. Interventions Feedback Loop

  11. A Framework of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace TOC Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership Contexts & Challenges Leadership Outcomes • Societal Factors: • Cultural Values • Identity Group History • Political Environment • Legal Environment/ Justice System • Economic Forces • Religious Environment • Workforce Demography • Organizational Factors: • Mission & Values • Interdependency of work • Organizational Demography & Dynamics (Faultlines) • Organizational Learning Paradigms • Direction – extent to which the organization has shared understanding. Indicators include: • Inclusive/exclusive mission • Positive/negative climate for innovation Individual Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Individual Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Trigger/Polarizing Event Spillover • Alignment – extent to which the organization has shared coordination. Indicators include: • Workforce efficiency/inefficiency • HR Policy integration/fragmentation Organizational Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Organizational Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) • Commitment – extent to which the organization has shared motivation. Indicators include: • Employee trust/distrust • Employee engagement/disengagement Leadership Across Differences Interventions: The interventions we develop serve to increase the supports and decrease the barriers that influence the achievement of shared direction, alignment, and commitment within a context of difference. Interventions will be created for individual, group, and organizational levels and will seek to achieve impact at a variety of levels of learning. A description of intervention levels is available as a separate document Interventions Feedback Loop

  12. A Framework of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace TOC Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership Contexts & Challenges • Societal Factors: • Cultural Values • Identity Group History • Political Environment • Legal Environment/ Justice System • Economic Forces • Religious Environment • Workforce Demography • Organizational Factors: • Mission & Values • Interdependency of work • Organizational Demography & Dynamics (Faultlines) • Organizational Learning Paradigms • Direction – extent to which the organization has shared understanding. Indicators include: • Inclusive/exclusive mission • Positive/negative climate for innovation Individual Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Individual Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Trigger/Polarizing Event Spillover • Alignment – extent to which the organization has shared coordination. Indicators include: • Workforce efficiency/inefficiency • HR Policy integration/fragmentation Organizational Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Organizational Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) • Commitment – extent to which the organization has shared motivation. Indicators include: • Employee trust/distrust • Employee engagement/disengagement Interventions Leadership Outcomes Leadership Outcomes: Defined in terms of an organization’s capability to achieve shared direction, alignment, and commitment in a context of difference. A working assumption is that organizations with high levels of shared direction, alignment and commitment will be more likely to achieve their mission or strategy in the face of social identity differences. Thus, at the highest level, this model addresses the challenge of how organizations can develop the leadership processes needed to achieve their mission within a context of difference. Feedback Loop

  13. A Framework of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace TOC Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership Contexts & Challenges Leadership Outcomes • Societal Factors: • Cultural Values • Identity Group History • Political Environment • Legal Environment/ Justice System • Economic Forces • Religious Environment • Workforce Demography • Organizational Factors: • Mission & Values • Interdependency of work • Organizational Demography & Dynamics (Faultlines) • Organizational Learning Paradigms • Direction – extent to which the organization has shared understanding. Indicators include: • Inclusive/exclusive mission • Positive/negative climate for innovation Individual Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Individual Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Trigger/Polarizing Event Spillover • Alignment – extent to which the organization has shared coordination. Indicators include: • Workforce efficiency/inefficiency • HR Policy integration/fragmentation Organizational Formal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) Organizational Informal Leadership Processes (we will pull examples from data) • Commitment – extent to which the organization has shared motivation. Indicators include: • Employee trust/distrust • Employee engagement/disengagement Interventions Feedback Loop: The feedback loop reflects the notion that changes in the system, or in elements in the system, have the capacity to change the context of the system as well. The feedback loop captures the dynamic relationship between an organization and the broader society or community in which it exists. As a simple example, issues faced by organizations may lead to the creation of new laws. Feedback Loop

  14. A Framework of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace TOC Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership Outcomes Leadership Contexts & Challenges

  15. A Framework of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace TOC Direction Shared Understanding. Individual Formal Leadership Processes Individual Informal Leadership Processes Trigger/Polarizing Event Spillover Alignment shared coordination. Organizational Formal Leadership Processes Organizational Informal Leadership Processes Commitment shared motivation. Leadership Contexts & Challenges Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership Outcomes Organizational Factors Societal Factors Leadership Development Interventions Feedback Loop

  16. A Framework of Leadership Across Differences in the Workplace TOC Trigger/Polarizing Event • Direction – extent to which the organization has shared understanding. Indicators include: • Inclusive/exclusive mission • Positive/negative climate for innovation Spillover • Alignment – extent to which the organization has shared coordination. Indicators include: • Workforce efficiency/inefficiency • HR Policy integration/fragmentation • Commitment – extent to which the organization has shared motivation. Indicators include: • Employee trust/distrust • Employee engagement/disengagement Leadership Contexts & Challenges Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership Outcomes • Societal Factors: • Cultural Values • Identity Group History • Political Environment • Legal Environment/ Justice System • Economic Forces • Religious Environment • Workforce Demography • Organizational Factors: • Mission & Values • Interdependency of work • Organizational Demography & Dynamics (Faultlines) • Organizational Learning Paradigms Individual Formal Leadership Processes (We will pull samples from Data) Individual Informal Leadership Processes (We will pull samples from data) Organizational Formal Leadership Processes (We will pull samples from Data) Organizational Informal Leadership Processes (We will pull samples from Data) Leadership Development Interventions Feedback Loop

  17. Back Framework Table of Contents Cultural Values Socially shared, abstract ideas about what is good, right, and desirable in a society or other bounded group. Data Source(s): Shalom Schwartz’s work

  18. Back Framework Table of Contents Identity Group History The history of the relationship between social identity groups in society at large, including tenure, recency, and the intensity and nature of past conflict. This relates to the construct of intergroup anxiety in the literature (Stephan & Stephan, 1985). Data Source(s): Literature reviews, media scans, and our international collaborators

  19. Back Framework Table of Contents Political Environment The formal and informal political environment. This includes which SI groups have access to power. Voting rights. Political parties. The extent to which there is “free press,” active labor organizations, and community organizing. Data Source(s): Literature reviews and societal indicators including non-CCL databases.

  20. Back Framework Table of Contents Legal Environment/Justice System The laws as well as informal justice systems of the country or countries in which an organization is located. Of specific interest are laws regarding workplace policy and behavior. Also of interest is the ability of various social identity groups to access the justice system and the application of the laws to various social identity groups. Data Source(s): Summaries of legal code in different countries, non-CCL databases/

  21. Back Framework Table of Contents Economic Forces Current trends in employment. Included are the percent of the population who is unemployed and type of work available (leading industries in that region). Data Source(s): Literature reviews, non-CCL databases.

  22. Back Framework Table of Contents Religious Environment The degree of religious tolerance and the extent to which different religious groups are represented in the country or countries in which an organization is located. Data Source(s): Literature reviews, non-CCL databases.

  23. Back Framework Table of Contents Workforce Demography A description of the available workforce (in terms of major SI group categories including immigrant groups) in the country or countries in which an organization is located. Data Source(s): Literature reviews, non-CCL databases

  24. Back Framework Table of Contents Spillover The process by which social identity differences in the society at large influence organizational dynamics. The extent or means by which spillover impacts organizational dynamics is influenced by a number of different organizational elements (e.g. mission and values). Data Source(s): Interviews and media scans.

  25. Back Framework Table of Contents Mission & Values Indicates what the organization as a whole is trying to accomplish and the values by which is operates. In our study, a working assumption is that the superordinate goal of nonprofit organizations is some type of “greater good” while profitability is the primary superordinate goal for for-profit organizations. Mission and values influence the nature of social identity group relations. A nonprofit mission (e.g. feeding hungry children) may make the day-to-day tensions between SI groups seem “less important” in the greater context of what they are trying to achieve. As another example, economic factors in society (e.g., the need for a job) may make profitability an important enough goal to put aside/tolerate differences. Data Source(s): The for-profit or not-for-profit status of the organization is our loose indicator of mission and values.

  26. Back Framework Table of Contents Interdependency of the Work The extent to which mission accomplishment requires interdependent & cooperative work. Organizations may vary from having work that is highly technical/task oriented/independent to highly interdependent/adaptive. Interdependent work may require different social groups to work together (increased contact) while independent work may allow for greater SI categorization (though perhaps infrequent triggers because of lack of interaction). The nature of the work may vary by unit in the organization. Data Source(s): Organizational assessment interview and data, interviews.

  27. Back Framework Table of Contents Organizational Demography & Dynamics The demographics of those within the organization. A key construct in the literature related to this part of the model is faultlines, defined as the compositional dynamics of the multiple demographic attributes that can potentially subdivide a group (Lau and Murnighan, 1998). Faultlines may or may not be active in an organization, but they are always present (similar to the notion of the simmering pot). A trigger serves to activate or exacerbate a faultline. When a faultline becomes opened, it becomes more difficult for organizations to achieve shared direction, alignment, and commitment within a context of difference. Data Source(s): Organizational assessment interview and data.

  28. Back Framework Table of Contents Organizational Learning The ability of an organization to continuously learn and appropriately transform itself given its changing realities (Marsick). Organizational learning includes the concepts of single loop vs. double loop learning, as well as espoused theories vs. theories in action from Chris Argyris’ work. Data Source(s): Interviews.

  29. Back Framework Table of Contents Trigger/Catalyst A trigger occurs when social identity becomes activated in varying degrees. A trigger fosters social categorization. A trigger is an event or action that: • Activates social identity schemas • Serves to make an inequity or inequality perceptible • Becomes shaped within the context of various leadership actions and processes Triggers involve at least two social identity groups. There are actors and responders. The actors of a trigger are the individuals who create the stimulus, or triggering actions or event. The responders of a trigger are the individuals who are affected by the stimulus, or towards whom the action was targeted. For an event to be a trigger the collective attribution is based on the shared social identity of either the actors, the responders, or of both groups. Collective attribution means at least two members from the same identity group attribute the event or action to their social identity group or the social identity group of the other party.

  30. Back Framework Table of Contents Leadership Processes & Actions Leadership processes and actions are defined as the processes and actions that lead to shared direction, alignment, and commitment in a context of difference. Examples include: • Leadership processes that contribute to the outcome of shared direction: • Articulating an inclusive vision, mission, purpose, values • Naming of shared goals, outcomes, objectives • Devising of consistent and overlapping strategies, policies, and practices to meet these ends. • Leadership processes that contribute to the outcome of shared alignment: • Finding common ground in ideas, activities, and values • Identifying areas of shared responsibility • Creating practices and systems for bridging differences • Leadership processes that contribute to the outcome of shared commitment: • Creating trust and mutual respect • Building a sense of togetherness or community • Keeping the organization together when broader forces try to pull people apart MORE

  31. Back Framework Table of Contents Leadership Processes & Actions Note that the examples of leadership processes on the previous page can be accomplished in a number of different ways. For example, one process for “creating trust and mutual respect” would be a leader in a position of authority who models trust and respect on a daily basis. Another process would be an event in which members of different social groups build trust through the sharing of customs and traditions. And yet another process would be an organizational value that places emphasis on “demonstrating respect to one another.” What all of these leadership processes have in common is that they contribute to the creation of shared commitment within a context of difference. Currently, we have organized the various types of leadership processes along two dimensions – individual and organizational level processes and formal and informal processes. The two dimensions create four different quadrants as follows: • Individual: • Actions of authority and interactions between authority and others (formal) • Actions and interactions between others (informal) • Organizational: • Organizational practices (formal) • Organizational culture (informal) Data Source(s): Interviews, surveys, organizational assessment interview.

  32. Back Framework Table of Contents Leadership Development Interventions The interventions we develop serve to increase the supports and decrease the barriers that influence the achievement of shared direction, alignment, and commitment within a context of difference. Interventions will be created for individual, group, and organizational levels and will seek to achieve impact at a variety of levels of learning. A description of intervention levels is available as a separate document.

  33. Back Framework Table of Contents Leadership Outcomes Leadership outcomes are defined as the extent to which organizations have shared Direction, Alignment, and Commitment across different Social Identity groups. We speculate that organizations with high levels of shared direction, alignment, and commitment will be more capable of accomplishing their mission in a context of difference than organizations low in these dimensions. As we create and evaluate interventions we will have the opportunity to explore the outcome element of the framework in more depth. As we analyze the current data, we will summarize various indicators of shared direction, alignment, and commitment in organizational settings (for example, high turnover with regard to a specific social group could be an indicator of high direction). Both positive and negative indicators need to be explored and articulated. Data Source(s): Interviews

  34. Back Framework Table of Contents Feedback Loop The feedback loop reflects the notion that changes in the system, or in elements in the system, have the capacity to change the context of the system as well. The feedback loop captures the dynamic relationship between an organization and the broader society or community in which it exists. For example, issues faced by organizations may lead to the creation of new laws.