Marx & Engels • Ideology as distortion caused by the mode of production (economic structure).
Base and Superstructure • The mode of production (base) gives rise to the social and cultural institutions (superstructure) that legitimate it.
Hegemony • The ruling class’ moral and political claims to leadership. • Hegemony is not domination, which operates by force, most commonly the state’s monopoly on violence. Instead, it’s intellectual and moral (Gramsci, 44)
Hegemony (cont.) • Hegemony is a process, not a fixed situation: “ideological struggle is a continuing feature of any society in which one social group has dominance over another” (Cormack, 11). • “A social group can, and indeed must already exercise “leadership” before winning governmental power” (Gramsci, 44)
Utopia and the imagination of the child • “Coercion melts away in the magic palace of sweet harmony and repose – the palace raised and administered at a distance by the father, whose physical absence is designed to avoid direct confrontation with his progeny.” (Dorfman and Mattelart, 149)
Ideological Structure (Gramsci): “Everything which influences or is able to influence public opinion, directly or indirectly, belongs to it: libraries, schools, associations and clubs of various kinds, even architecture and the layout and names of streets” (Gramsci, 46).