House of CommonsHouse of Lords Presented by :张元
Parliament ,Britain • The Crown • The House of Lords • The House of Commons
House of Commons Democratically elected body 659 MPs 659 constituencies Lose a vote of confidence max 5 years resign or dissovle fails to carry its legislation General Election Election By--election
Candidates &Voters • a citizen of the UK, of a British overseas territory, of the Republic of Ireland, or of a member of the Commonwealth of Nations • Age 21 or over for candidates, 18 or over for voters • Not qualified – such as , Members of House of Lords, undischarged bankrupts, mental illness…
General Election--preparation • nominated on an official nomination paper giving his or her full name and home address • Paper must include the signatures of 10 electors who will support him or her including a proposer and a seconder • must stand either for a registered political party or as an independent.
Must pay a 500 pound deposit which is lost if they do not secure 5% of the total number of voters cast in their constituency ---------discourage large number of frivolous candidates from standing • Usually approved by head office & selected as prospective Parlimentary Candidate
Election day In the constituency • 3 weeks before,Local • campaign • Contest for the most votes • Make public speeches • appears on local TV • canvasses from house • to house • Hand out “manifesto” Candidate with the Most votes wins First-past-the-post
when a Member dies, retires or is disqualified from membership of the House of Commons By-election Voting only in the Constituency Without a member The same electoral System as in General election
The House of Lords– unelected body Senior clerics of The church of England The Lords Spiritual Certain members Of Peerage The Lords Temporal As long as their ecclesiastical positions Serve for life
The Lords Spiritual • No more than 26 Lords Spiritual • Include the 5 most important ecclesiastics of the Church: the Archbishop of Canterbury (southeast England) the Archbishop of York (northern England) the Bishop of London (southern England) the Bishop of Durham (nouthern England) the Bishop of Winchester (south-central England)
The church of Scotland is not representation by any Lords Spiritual--- Presbyterian(长老制的) institution, no archbishops or bishops • The Church of Ireland did obtain representation in the House of Lords after the Union of Ireland and Great Britain in 1801. However, it was disestablished in 1871, and ceased to be reprensented by Lords Spiritual • Hence,all Lords Spiritual in the present House are of the Church of England
The Lords Temporal • Originally, the Lords Temporal included several hereditary peersdukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, barons, and lords of Parliament. Such hereditary dignities are created by the Crown, in modern times on the advice of the Prime Minister of the day. • However,The House of Lords Act 1999 provides that only ninety-two individuals may continue to sit in the Upper House by virtue of hereditary peerages.
The Earl Marshal(马歇尔) 2 The Lord Great Chamberlain (张伯伦) A.92 Hereditary peerages 15: elected by the whole House 90 75:chosen by fellow Hereditaries in the House of Lords
B.Life peers– the largest group • Created by the Sovereign, who acts on the advice of the Prime Minister • By convention, PM allows leaders of other parties to select some life peers ---maitian a politacal balance in the House of Lords • Some non-party life peers are nominated by an independent house of Lords Appointment Comminsson
C.The lords of Appeal in Ordinary • A group of individuals appointed to the House of Lords so that they may exercise its judical functions • Selected by the Prime Minister, but are formally appointed by the Sovereign • Hold seats the House of Lords for life
The House of Lords, as of 1 November 2004: Affiliation Life Peers Hereditary Peers Lords Spiritual Total Elected by Party † Elected by Whole House Royal Office-holders Conservative Party 156 39 8 0 0 203 Labour Party 197 2 2 0 0 201 Liberal Democrats 64 2 2 0 0 68 Cross-benchers 154 29 2 2 0 187 Other party/Non-affiliated 8 2 0 0 0 10 Lords Spiritual 0 0 0 0 26 26 Total 579 74 14 2 26 695