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Graphics Device System Pradondet Nilagupta Dept. of Computer Engineering Kasetsart University Graphical System 5 major elements for a computer graphic system Processor Memory Frame buffer Input devices Output Devices Output Technology (1/3) Calligraphic Displays

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Graphics device system l.jpg

Graphics Device System

Pradondet Nilagupta

Dept. of Computer Engineering

Kasetsart University

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


Graphical system l.jpg
Graphical System

5 major elements for a computer graphic system

  • Processor

  • Memory

  • Frame buffer

  • Input devices

  • Output Devices

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Output Technology (1/3)

  • Calligraphic Displays

    • also called vector, stroke or line drawing graphics

    • lines drawn directly on phosphor

      • display processor directs electron beam according to list of lines defined in a "display list“

      • phosphors glow for only a few micro-seconds so lines must be redrawn or refreshed constantly

      • deflection speed limits # of lines that can be drawn without flicker.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Output Technology (2/3)

  • Raster Display

    • Display primitives (lines, shaded regions, characters) stored as pixels in refresh buffer (or frame buffer)

    • Electron beam scans a regular pattern of horizontal raster lines connected by horizontal retraces and vertical retrace

    • Video controller coordinates the repeated scanning

    • Pixels are individual dots on a raster line

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Output Technology (cont)

  • Bitmap is the collection of pixels

  • Frame buffer stores the bitmap

  • Raster display store the display primitives (line, characters, and solid shaded or patterned area)

  • Frame buffers

    • are composed of VRAM (video RAM).

  • VRAM is dual-ported memory capable of

    • Random access

    • Simultaneous high-speed serial output: built-in serial shift register can output entire scanline at high rate synchronized to pixel clock.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Pros and Cons

  • Advantages to Raster Displays

    • lower cost

    • filled regions/shaded images

  • Disadvantages to Raster Displays

    • a discrete representation, continuous primitives must be scan-converted (i.e. fill in the appropriate scan lines)

    • Aliasing or "jaggies" Arises due to sampling error when converting from a continuous to a discrete representation

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Basic Definitions

  • Raster: A rectangular array of points or dots.

  • Pixel (Pel): One dot or picture element of the raster

  • Scan line: A row of pixels

Video raster devices display an image by sequentially drawing out the pixels of the scan lines that form the raster.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Resolution

  • Maximum number of points that can be displayed without overlap on a CRT monitor

  • Dependent on

    • Type of phosphor m

    • Intensity to be displayed m

    • Focusing and deflection systems m

  • REL SGI O2 monitors: 1280 x 1024

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Example

  • Television

    • NTSC 640x480x8b 1/4 MB

    • GA-HDTV 1920x1080x8b ~2 MB

  • Workstations

    • Bitmapped display 960x1152x1b ~1 Mb

    • Color workstation 1280x1024x24b 5 MB

  • Laserprinters

    • 300 dpi (8.5”x300)(11”x300) 1.05 MB

    • 2400 dpi (8.5”x2400)(11”x2400) ~64 MB

  • Film (line pairs/mm)

    • 35mm (diagonal) slide (ASA25~125 lp/mm) = 3000

      3000 x 2000 x 3 x 12b ~27 MB

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Aspect Ratio

Frame aspect ratio (FAR) = horizontal/vertical size

TV 4:3

HDTV 16:9

Page 8.5:11 ~ 3/4

35mm 3:2

Panavision 2.35:1 (2:1 anamorphic)

Vistavision 2.35:1 (1.5 anamorphic)

Pixel aspect ratio (PAR) = FAR vres/hres

Nuisance in graphics if not 1

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Physical Size

  • Physical size: Length of the screen diagonal (typically 12 to 27 inches)

  • REL SGI O2 monitors: 19 inches

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Refresh Rates and Bandwidth

  • Frames per second (FPS)

  • Film (double framed) 24 FPS

  • TV (interlaced) 30 FPS x 1/4 = 8 MB/s

  • Workstation (non-interlaced) 75 FPS x 5 = 375 MB/s

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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1/30 SEC

1/30 SEC

1/60 SEC

1/60 SEC

1/60 SEC

1/60 SEC

FIELD 1

FIELD 2

FIELD 1

FIELD 2

FRAME

FRAME

Interlaced Scanning

  • Scan frame 30 times per second

  • To reduce flicker, divide frame into two fields—one consisting of the even scan lines and the other of the odd scan lines.

  • Even and odd fields are scanned out alternately to produce an interlaced image.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Frame Buffer

  • A frame buffer is characterized by is size, x, y, and pixel depth.

  • the resolution of a frame buffer is the number of pixels in the display. e.g. 1024x1024 pixels.

  • Bit Planes or Bit Depth is the number of bits corresponding to each pixel. This determines the color resolution of the buffer.

Bilevel or monochrome displays have 1 bit/pixel (128Kbytes of RAM)

8bits/pixel ->256 simultaneous colors24bits/pixel ->16 million simultaneous colors

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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8

8

8

Red

Blue

Green

Specifying Color

  • direct color :

    • each pixel directly specifies a color value

      • e.g., 24bit : 8bits(R) + 8bits(G) + 8 bits(B)

  • palette-based color : indirect specification

    • use palette (CLUT)

      • e.g., 8 bits pixel can represent 256 colors

24 bits plane, 8 bits per color gun.

224 = 16,777,216

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Lookup Tables

  • Video controller often uses a lookup table to allow indirection of display values in frame buffer.

  • Allows flexible use of colors without lots of frame-buffer memory.

  • Allows change of display without remapping underlying data double buffering.

  • Permits simple animation.

  • Common sizes: 8 x 12; 8 x 24; 12 x 24.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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CLUT

Frame Buffer

0

127

2083

y

00000000

00000100

00010011

to blue

gun

to red

gun

to green

gun

x

255

127

Color Look-Up Table

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Pseudo Color

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Cathode Ray tube

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technology

  • 2D Displays

    • CRT

    • LCD (raster)

    • plasma screen (raster)

    • Light valves (raster)

    • Micromirror (raster)

    • Projected laser (vector)

    • Direct laser (vector)

  • 3D Displays

    • Stereo presentation (raster/vector)

    • Vibrating mirror (vector)

    • Helical rotor (vector)

    • LED plate (raster)

    • Photoactive cube (raster)

    • Parabolic mirror (raster)

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technologies

  • Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs)

    • Most common display device today

    • Evacuated glass bottle (lastof the vacuum tubes)

    • Heating element (filament)

    • Electrons pulled towards anode focusing cylinder

    • Vertical and horizontal deflection plates

    • Beam strikes phosphor coating on front of tube

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technologies: CRTs

  • Vector Displays

    • First computer displays: basically an oscilloscope

    • Control X,Y with vertical/horizontal plate voltage

    • Often used intensity as Z

    • Show: http://graphics.lcs.mit.edu/classes/6.837/F98/Lecture1/Slide11.html

    • Name two disadvantages

      • Just does wireframe

      • Display needs constant update to avoid fading

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Vector Display Architecture

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technologies: CRTs

  • Raster Displays

    • Black and white television: an oscilloscope with a fixed scan pattern: left to right, top to bottom

    • Paint entire screen 30 times/sec

      • Actually, TVs paint top-to-bottom 60 times/sec, alternating between even and odd scanlines

      • This is called interlacing. It’s a hack. Why do it?

    • To paint the screen, computer needs to synchronize with the scanning pattern of raster

      • Solution: special memory to buffer image with scan-out synchronous to the raster. We call this the framebuffer.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Raster displays Architecture

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Raster refresh

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Comparing Raster and Vector (1/2)

  • advantages of vector:

    • very fine detail of line drawings (sometimes curves), whereas raster suffers from jagged edge problem due to pixels (aliasing, quantization errors)

    • geometry objects (lines) whereas raster only handles pixels

    • eg. 1000 line plot: vector disply computes 2000 endpoints

    • raster display computes all pixels on each line

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Comparing Raster and Vector (2/2)

  • advantages of raster:

    • cheaper

    • colours, textures, realism

    • unlimited complexity of picture: whatever you put in refresh buffer, whereas vector complexity limited by refresh rate

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technology: Color CRTs

  • Color CRTs are much more complicated

    • Requires manufacturing very precise geometry

    • Uses a pattern of color phosphors on the screen:

Delta electron gun arrangement

In-line electron gun arrangement

http://www.udayton.edu/~cps/cps460/notes/displays/

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technology: Color CRTs

  • Color CRTs have

    • Three electron guns

    • A metal shadow maskto differentiate the beams

http://www.udayton.edu/~cps/cps460/notes/displays/

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technology: Raster

  • CRT (raster) pros:

    • Leverages low-cost CRT technology (i.e., TVs)

    • Bright! Display emits light

  • Cons:

    • Requires screen-size memory array

    • Discreet sampling (pixels)

    • Practical limit on size (call it 40 inches)

    • Bulky

    • Finicky (convergence, warp, etc)

    • X-ray radiation…

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technology: LCDs

  • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)

    • LCDs: organic molecules, naturally in crystalline state, that liquefy when excited by heat or E field

    • Crystalline state twists polarized light 90º.

http://www.udayton.edu/~cps/cps460/notes/displays/

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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LCDs

  • Transmissive & reflective LCDs:

    • LCDs act as light valves, not light emitters, and thus rely on an external light source.

    • Laptop screen: backlit, transmissive display

    • Palm Pilot/Game Boy: reflective display

http://www.udayton.edu/~cps/cps460/notes/displays/

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Active-Matrix LCDs

  • LCDs must be constantly refreshed, or they fade back to their crystalline state

    • Refresh applied in a raster-like scanning pattern

    • Passive LCDs: short-burst refresh, followed by long slow fade in which LCD is between On & Off

    • Not very crisp, prone to ghosting

  • Active matrix LCDs have a transistor and capacitor at every cell

    • FET transfers charge into capacitor during scan

    • Capacitor easily holds charge till next refresh

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Active Matrix LCDs Pros and Cons

  • Active-matrix pros: crisper with less ghosting,low cost, low weight,flat, small size, low power consumption.

  • Active-matrix cons: more expensive, small size, low contrast, slow response

  • Today, most things seemto be active-matrix

More on Display

http://www.udayton.edu/~cps/cps460/notes/displays/

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Plasma

  • Plasma display panels

    • Similar in principle to fluorescent light tubes

    • Small gas-filled capsules are excited by electric field,emits UV light

    • UV excites phosphor

    • Phosphor relaxes, emits some other color

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Plasma Display Panel Pros and Cons

  • Plasma Display Panel Pros

    • Large viewing angle

    • Good for large-format displays

    • Fairly bright

  • Cons

    • Still very expensive

    • Large pixels (~1 mm versus ~0.2 mm)

    • Phosphors gradually deplete

    • Less bright than CRTs, using more power

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Display Technology: DMDs

  • Digital Micromirror Devices (projectors)

    • Microelectromechanical (MEM) devices, fabricated with VLSI techniques

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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DMDs Pros and Cons

  • DMDs are truly digital pixels

  • Vary grey levels by modulating pulse length

  • Color: multiple chips, or color-wheel

  • Great resolution

  • Very bright

  • Flicker problems

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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FEDs

  • Field Emission Devices (FEDs)

    • Like a CRT, with many small electron guns at each pixel

    • Unreliable electrodes, needs vacuum

    • Thin, but limited in size

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Organic LED Arrays

  • Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Arrays

    • The display of the future? Many think so.

    • OLEDs function like regular semiconductor LEDs

    • But with thin-film polymer construction:

      • Thin-film deposition or vacuum deposition process…not grown like a crystal, no high-temperature doping

      • Thus, easier to create large-area OLEDs

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Organic LED Arrays Pros and Cons

  • OLED pros:

    • Transparent

    • Flexible

    • Light-emitting, and quite bright (daylight visible)

    • Large viewing angle

    • Fast (< 1 microsecond off-on-off)

    • Can be made large or small

  • OLED cons:

    • Not quite there yet (96x64 displays…)

    • Not very robust, display lifetime a key issue

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Traditional Input Device (1/4)

  • Commonly used today

  • Mouse-like devices

    • mouse

    • wheel mouse

    • trackball

  • Keyboards

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Traditional Input Device (2/4)

  • Pen-based devices

    • pressure sensitive

    • absolute positioning

    • tablet computers

      • IPAQ, WinCE machines

      • Microsoft eTablet coming soon

    • palm-top devices

      • Handspring Visor, PalmOS™

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Traditional Input Device (3/4)

  • Joysticks

    • game pads

    • flightsticks

    • Touchscreens

  • Microphones

    • wireless vs. wired

    • headset

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Traditional Input Device (4/4)

  • Digital still and video cameras, scanners

  • MIDI devices

    • input from electronic musical instruments

    • more convenient than entering scores with just a mouse/keyboard

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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3D Input Device (1/2)

  • Electromagnetic trackers

    • can be attached to any head, hands, joints, objects

    • Polhemus FASTRAK™(used in Brown’s Cave)

  • Acoustic-inertial trackers

    • Intersense IS-900

http://www.isense.com/products/prec/is900/index.htm

http://www.polhemus.com/ftrakds.htm

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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3D Input Device (2/2)

  • Gloves

    • attach electromagnetic tracker to the hand

  • Pinch gloves

    • contact between digits is a “pinch” gesture

    • in CAVE, extended Fakespace PINCH™ gloves with extra contacts

http://www.fakespacelabs.com/products/pinch.html

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Video Output Devices (1/4)

  • Classification

    • Stereo

      • head-mounted displays

      • shutter glasses

    • Degree of immersion

      • conventional desktop screen

      • walkup VR, semi-immersive displays immersive virtual reality

http://robotics.aist-nara.ac.jp/equipments/E-equips/hmd.html

http://www.virtualresearch.com/index.html

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Video Output Devices (2/4)

Example of Immersive

Display

  • Diffusion Tensor MRI Brain Visualization at Brown University

http://www.cs.brown.edu/research/graphics/research/sciviz/brain/brain.html

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Video Output Devices (3/4)

  • Desktop

    • Vector display

    • CRT

    • LCD flatpanel

    • workstation displays(Sun Lab)

    • PC and Mac laptops

    • Tablet computers

    • Wacom’s display tablet

http://www.wacom.com/productinfo/index.cfm

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Video Output Devices (4/4)

  • Immersive

    • Head-mounted displays (HMD)

    • Stereo shutter glasses

    • Virtual Retinal Display (VRD)

    • CAVE™

http://www.evl.uic.edu/research/template_res_project.php3?indi=27

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Interactive Input Devices

  • A graphics work station commonly has one or two monitors and a range of input devices. These can include:

KeyboardMay be customized to application. Can include dials, joysticks.

  • Other device Graphics tablet Mouse Light pen Joystick Button devices Dials and levers 3D locators Touch panels Voice Input Scanners

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Hard Copy Devices

  • Printers

    • Non-Impact printers --- Ink jet; laser;

    • Xerographic;

    • Electrostatic;

    • Dye sublimation.

  • Plotters

    • Flatbed, Beltbed

    • Multiple pens available

    • Plotter `languages’

    • Built in character sets, line styles etc.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Hardcopy Technologies

  • Basically printing on paper, film etc. Some general issues are:

    • The resolution of a device is the closest spacing at which adjacent black and white lines can be distinguished.

    • Many devices work by producing (colored) dots, and image quality vs. dot size or spot size is an issue.

    • Resolution can be no greater than addressability (lines per inch) and depends on spot size also on intensity distribution across spot.

    • Many devices can create only a few solid colors. Other colors must be produced by dither patterns.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Raster Scan Display Systems

  • The various hardware architectures for providing graphics functionality differ on two axes

    • Processing performed by specialized graphics hardware.

      • Simplest has only video controller.

      • More complex systems use a graphics display processor with varying functionality.

    • Relationship of frame buffer to CPU memory architecture.

    • Dual ported

    • Accessible only to graphics controller

    • Accessible only over main bus

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Video Controller

Problems with memory access { 50 ns pixel time (480 x 640 x 60 Hz) is shorter than typical 200 ns RAM cycle time.

- Must fetch multiple pixels per access.

- Can eat up a lot of memory bandwidth.

- Can eat up a lot of main bus bandwidth if so organized.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Simple Raster systems (1/2)

  • No special graphics processing except video controller. Two basic frame-buffer mappings.

  • Single ported frame buffer

  • Passes video information over system bus.

  • Simple and flexible.

  • Problems with bus congestion.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Simple Raster systems (2/2)

  • Dual ported frame buffer:

  • Frame buffer in special, dual ported Video RAM.

  • Unloads bus.

  • More expensive.

  • Less exible.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Systems with video processors (1/3)

  • Makes sense to put special-purpose hardware close to video (speed, expense)

  • May do various scan conversion algorithms, pix moves, windowing, sometimes rotation of existing primitives

  • Commands such as Text, Move, Line, Polygon...

  • 3D stuff as well - hidden surface removal, shading, texture mapping.

  • Various architectures.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Systems with video processors (2/3)

  • Graphics processor has its local memory and manages the frame buffer and specialized graphics programs.

  • Typical architecture for "plug in" graphics cards.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Systems with video processors (3/3)

  • Graphics processor is controlled via an instruction queue.

  • All data transferred between host memory and coprocessor memory must go through both CPU

  • Unimplemented algorithms may be slow, since host machine has no direct access to the frame buffer.

  • May be considerable communication overhead if coprocessor instruction registers are not memory mapped.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Example: Voodoo

  • Voodoo chipset manufactured by 3Dfx, Inc.

  • 3D-only graphics chipset.

  • Card manufacturers would build cards around Voodoo chip

  • Came out in 1996 ... probably first consumer-level 3D accelerator.

  • Combined hardware (Voodoo chip) and software (Direct3D/OpenGL/Glide) solution.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Voodoo hardware

  • Features:

    • Filled 45 Million pixels/s; 1 million triangles/s

    • Hardware z buffer (16-bit).

    • Perspective corrected Gouraud-shaded texture-mapped triangles done in hardware.

    • Alpha blending (allows transparency)

  • Software provided polygons, normals and textures, and did all the geometry (modelling, viewing) and lighting itself.

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Example: GeForce 256

  • Released in 1999.

  • One chip solution; 2D and 3D support. 2D includes MPEG-2 (DVD) decoder.

  • RAM from 32MB-128MB

  • GeForce GPU (graphics processing unit) has 23 million transistors ... more than Intel PIII.

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Hardware features (1/2)

  • Still unique for PC board in that it does transformation and lighting in hardware. Means more CPU for game physics etc.

  • 4-stage pipeline:

    • Transformation

    • Lighting

    • Triangle setup & clipping

    • Rasterisation

  • 4 pipelines (16 units).

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Hardware features (2/2)

  • Hardware support for:

    • Phong shaded texture-mapped polygons

    • Bump mapping

    • Cube environment mapping

  • 480 Mpixels/s, 15 million polygon/s.

  • Extremely fast.

  • http://www.nvidia.com. Some very nice white papers on T & L and cube enviromapping.

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GeForce 3

  • 57 million transistor chip (Pentium 4 is ~40 million)

  • Released in April 2001.

  • Programmability means it's really another computer within your computer.

  • Graphics hardware is moving at 3x Moore's Law.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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Render farms

  • Closely related to Beowulf clusters

  • Idea: Use many tightly-coupled off-the-shelf machines to do rendering

  • Problem: Dividing the work

  • But sometimes easy, e.g. one frame per machine

  • Example: Titanic water effects used cluster of about 160 Alphas running Linux/NT.

204481 Foundation of Computer Graphics


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