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CYTOLOGY. THE STUDY OF CELLS - STRUCTURE. GENERAL. Cell = Smallest Living Unit Produced by Cell Division or Fertilization Surrounded by Interstitial / Extracellular Fluid Components: Plasma (Cell) Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus. THE PLASMA MEMBRANE. Structure Phospholipid bilayer

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cytology

CYTOLOGY

THE STUDY OF CELLS - STRUCTURE

general
GENERAL
  • Cell = Smallest Living Unit
  • Produced by Cell Division or Fertilization
  • Surrounded by Interstitial / Extracellular Fluid
  • Components:
    • Plasma (Cell) Membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Nucleus
the plasma membrane
THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
  • Structure
    • Phospholipid bilayer
      • self-orienting, reseals
      • hydrophilic heads (face outward)
      • hydrophobic tails (face inward)
    • Proteins (floating or anchored)
    • Cholesterol (keeps it “fluid”)
the plasma membrane1
THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
  • Functions:
    • Physical Barrier (Selective!)
      • Fat-soluble do pass through
      • Water-soluble don’t
    • Proteins:
      • Channels or Carriers (transport)
      • Enzymes (chemical reactions)
      • Receptor sites (“docking” of molecules)
      • Anchors
cytoplasm
CYTOPLASM
  • Material Between Plasma Membrane & Nucleus
  • Components
      • Cytosol (fluid with solutes)
      • Cytoplasmic Organelles
      • Inclusions (stored materials)
  • Site of chemical reactions
nucleus
NUCLEUS
  • Organelle
  • Double Nuclear Membrane with Pores
  • DNA – Instructions for making proteins
      • Chromatin - loose; protein synthesis
      • Chromosomes - dense, rod-like; cell division
  • Nucleolus
      • Assembly of ribosomes
cytoplasmic organelles
CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES
  • Mitochondria
    • ATP synthesis (cellular energy)
    • Self-replicating
    • Contains DNA
cytoplasmic organelles1
CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES
  • Ribosomes
    • Site of Protein Synthesis
    • Free or Attached
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Membrane synthesis
    • Proteins made for export
cytoplasmic organelles2
CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES
  • Smooth ER
    • Lipid synthesis & breakdown
    • Detoxification
cytoplasmic organelles3
CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES
  • Golgi Apparatus

Prepares proteins for export

Makes lysosomes

Packages material to add to plasma membrane

cytoplasmic organelles4
CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES
  • Lysosomes
    • Digestion within the cell
    • Defense
    • Recycle worn-out cells
  • Peroxisomes
    • Detoxify
      • Alcohol
      • Formaldehyde
      • Free Radicals
cytoplasmic organelles5
CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES
  • Cytoskeleton
    • Proteins
    • Support & Shape
    • Movement inside cell
  • Centrioles
    • Form Spindle
    • Form base of cilia & flagella
cytoplasmic organelles6
CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES
  • Cilia – short, numerous, move substances over free surfaces
  • Flagella – long, singular, move cell
  • Microvilli – thin folds of cell membrane, increase surface area to maximize absorption
cytoplasmic organelles7
Cytoplasmic Organelles
  • Proteosomes
    • Ring of stacked proteins around central core
    • Break-up undesirable proteins
  • Vaults
    • Ribonucleoprotein (proteins + RNA)
    • May be involved in transport between nucleus & cytoplasm?