Chapter 2 Systems Techniques and Documentation. . Presentation Outline. How does this system work?. Systems Techniques Flowcharting Techniques System Technique Symbols The Use of Systems Techniques. I. Systems Techniques.
How does this system work?
Systems techniques are tools used in analysis, design, and documentation of system and subsystem relationships.
A flowchart is a symbolic diagram that shows the data flow and sequence of operations in a system.
A systems analyst often acts as the communication link between users of a system and the programmers/systems support staff who will physically design the system to meet the user needs.
The intent of using DFDs is to separate clearly the logical process of systems analysis from the physical process of systems design. The systems analyst provides a logical description to the systems designer/programmer, who then designs the physical specification..
HIPO charts consist of two segments.
Narrative techniques are often particularly useful in the fact finding stage of systems analysis. Various techniques include:
A decision symbol in a flowchart can only show two flow condition. More complex decision functions may be represented using one of the following:
Evaluation1. Branching Tables
A branching table consists of a single condition that can result in more than two paths of processing.
The “Go to” section contains either a connector symbol reference or a single flowline to another symbol.
A decision table is similar to a branching table but more complex in that it incorporates multiple decision criteria.
An analyst wishes to prepare a decision table for
purchase order procedures. First, there is a credit
check of the customer. If credit is approved, the
order is accepted. If the order calls for 0 to 25 units,
there is no discount on the order. If the order calls
for 26 to 55 units, it is eligible for a 5 percent
discount; if more than 55 units are ordered, the
discount is 10 percent.
Condition entries are limited to Y, N, or N/A (-). Processing actions are either present or absent.
Entries indicate specific conditions, specific actions to be taken, or reference to other decision tables.
TotalA. Systems Flowcharts
A systems flowchart is a graphical representation of the overall flow of work, documents, and operations in an application system. The sandwich rule states that every process should be “sandwiched” between an input symbol and and output symbol.
Analytic flowcharts identify all significant processing in an application, emphasizing processing tasks that apply controls. In other words, functional areas are separated by columns. See Figure 2-10 on page 42.
Identifies the point of origin, distribution, and ultimate disposition of each document used in an application system. See Figure 2-11 on page 43.
ChecksE. Program or Block Flowcharts
Program flowcharts are used by system developers to provide detail about individual processing functions. The clutter of the additional processing detail is thus removed from a flowchart showing overall processing.
Basic Input/Output Symbol – Making data available for processing or the recording of processed information.
Process – Transforming data into information or other data.
Flowline Symbol – Used to show the sequence of information and processing.
Annotation – Used to show descriptive comments.
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Two basic components of an external audit of financial statements include:
Systems development generally consists of the following three phases: