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Systems Techniques and Documentation. Use of Systems Techniques in Systems Development. What are the three phases of a systems development project? Systems analysis Systems design Systems implementation. Systems Analysis. Systems analysis involves collecting and organizing facts.

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use of systems techniques in systems development
Use of Systems Techniques in Systems Development
  • What are the three phases of a systems development project?
  • Systems analysis
  • Systems design
  • Systems implementation
systems analysis
Systems Analysis
  • Systems analysis involves collecting and organizing facts.
  • Systems techniques assist the analyst in performing these tasks.
  • What are some of these techniques?
  • matrix techniques
  • logical data flow diagrams
systems implementation
Systems Implementation
  • Systems implementation involves the actual carrying out of the design plan.
  • Documentation is one of the most important parts of systems implementation.
  • What systems techniques serve as a documentation tool?
  • program flowcharts
  • decision tables
systems techniques
Systems Techniques
  • What is a flowchart?
  • A flowchart is a symbolic diagram that shows the data flow and sequence of operations in a system.
  • Flowcharts are probably the most common systems technique.
basic symbols
Basic Symbols

Input/Output

Process

Flowline

Annotation

specialized input output symbols
Specialized Input/Output Symbols

Punched Card

Punched Tape

On-Line Storage

Magnetic Disk

Magnetic Tape

specialized input output symbols8
Specialized Input/Output Symbols

Document

Communication

Link

Manual Input

Off-Line Storage

Display

specialized process symbols
Specialized Process Symbols

Auxiliary

Operation

Decision

Predefined

Process

Merge

Extract

Preparation

Collate

Manual

Operation

Sort

additional symbols
Additional Symbols

Connector

Transmittal Tape

Off-page Connector

Terminal

Parallel Mode

symbol use in flowcharting
Symbol Use in Flowcharting
  • Symbols are used in a flowchart to represent the functions of an information or other type of system.
  • Normal direction of flow is from left to right and top to bottom.
  • Open arrowheads should be used on reverse-direction flowlines
symbol use in flowcharting12
Symbol Use in Flowcharting

Normal Direction of Flow

Review

and

Approve

Invoice

Approved

Invoice

symbol use in flowcharting13
Symbol Use in Flowcharting

Reverse Flow Shown with Arrowheads

Review

and

Approve

Approved

Invoice

Invoice

symbol use in flowcharting14
Symbol Use in Flowcharting

Use of Connector Symbol

Purchasing

Stores

Requisition

A

Requisition

A

symbol use in flowcharting15
Symbol Use in Flowcharting

Bidirectional Flow Shown with Arrowheads

Requisition

Prepare Purchase Order and Update Vendor Files

Vendor

Files

Purchase

Order

learning objective
Learning Objective

Define common systems techniques, such as HIPO charts, systems flowcharts, and logical data flow diagrams.

ipo and hipo charts
IPO and HIPO Charts
  • These charts are used primarily by systems development personnel.
  • At the most general level of analysis only the basic input-process-output relations in a system are of concern.
  • Additional processing detail is provided by hierarchy plus input-process-output.
ipo chart
IPO Chart

System: Payroll

Description: Calculate Gross Pay

Author: Mr. Foxx

Chart Number: 3.1

Date: 6/9/0X

Input

Process

Output

Accumulate hours worked

Find correct pay rate

Compute gross pay

Payroll job record

Payroll master file

Gross pay records

Payroll master file

Error messages

hierarchy chart
Hierarchy Chart

1.0

Payroll System

2.0

3.0

4.0

Data Preparation

Processing

Review

hierarchy chart20
Hierarchy Chart

3.1

3.2

Calculate Gross Pay

Calculate Net Pay

3.11

3.12

3.13

Accumulate Hours Worked

Compute Gross Pay

Find Correct Pay Rate

Each numbered module would be detailed in an IPO chart.

systems and program flowcharts
Systems and Program Flowcharts
  • A systems flowchart identifies the overall or broad flow of operations in a system.
  • The focus of systems flowcharting concerns media and processing functions rather than the detailed logic of individual processing functions.
logical data flow diagram symbols
Logical Data FlowDiagram Symbols

Terminator

Process

Data Flow

Data Store

data flow diagram
Data Flow Diagram

Process

Payroll

Data

Timekeeping

Employees

Payroll Data

data flow diagram24
Data Flow Diagram

Employee Data

Current Status

Verify

Payroll

Data

P1

Data Valid

Payroll Data

Timekeeping

Valid Payroll Data

data flow diagram25
Data Flow Diagram

Employee Data

Net Pay and Deductions

Calculate

Pay

P2

Data to Process

Employees

Paychecks

Valid Payroll Data

data flow diagram26
Data Flow Diagram

Update

Employee

Files

Process

Payroll

Journal

Journal

Data

Details

Current

Amounts

Net Pay and

Deductions

Compute

Net Pay

Employees

Paychecks

analytic document and forms distribution flowcharts
Analytic, Document, and Forms Distribution Flowcharts
  • An analytic flowchart identifies all significant processing in an application, emphasizing processing tasks that apply controls.
  • In an analytic flowchart the flow of processing is depicted using symbols connected with flowlines.
analytic document and forms distribution flowcharts28
Analytic, Document, and Forms Distribution Flowcharts
  • A document flowchart is similar in format to an analytic flowchart but contains less detail about the processing functions of each entity shown on the chart.
  • The only symbol used in a document flowchart is the document symbol.
analytic document and forms distribution flowcharts29
Analytic, Document, and Forms Distribution Flowcharts
  • The forms distribution chart illustrates the distribution of multiple copy forms with an organization.
  • The emphasis is on who gets what forms rather than on how these forms are processed.
analytic flowchart
Analytic Flowchart

Purchasing Suppliers

Approve

Vendor

List

Select

Vendors

Request

for

Quotation

Prepare

Quotation

Request

for

Quotation

analytic flowchart31
Analytic Flowchart

Purchasing Suppliers

Quotations

Quotations

Select

Bid

Prepare

Purchase

Order

Purchase

Order

Purchase

Order

document flowchart
Document Flowchart

Controller Vice President Manufacturing

Accounts Payable Purchasing Agent Receiving Stores

Purchase

Requisition

1

Purchase

Requisition

1

Purchase

Requisition

2

2

Purchase

Order

3

To Vendor

Purchase

Order

1

2

Purchase

Order

5

Purchase

Order

4

3

4

5

forms distribution chart
Forms Distribution Chart

Purchasing Inventory Payables Production Accounting

Purchase

Order Copy

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

4

4

5