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  1. CCO in Context:bibliographical & archival standards CCO Boot Camp ALA, New Orleans, June 2006 Sherman Clarke New York University Libraries sherman.clarke@nyu.edu

  2. some conceptual differences & terminology • “what are you cataloging?” • AACR2 0.24 “cardinal principle” - the item in hand • reproduction exception & versions • cultural objects - the item in hand for museums, the representation of that object for visual resource collections

  3. “work” • FRBR Group 1 entities (work, expression, manifestation, item) • cultural objects • the “work” is what you are cataloging before you can catalog an image of it • Work Type - broad classification

  4. “self-describing” • books, serials and other printed resources • maps • videos (container) • not only self-describing but relatively permanent

  5. “From the top of the Great Falls, Yellowstone, 1871, TM” (used as title on Gerald Peters Gallery page)

  6. Anglo-American cataloguing rules(AACR) • continuation of practice, maturity • rule book • description AND access: not separate nor equivalent • data content standard • expedites sharing of cataloging records / metadata

  7. CCO: example of capitalization(from draft version, p. 41) • o Record for the Whole • Work Type: prayer book • Title: Prayer Book of Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg • o Record for the Part • Work Type: illumination • Title: Christ Led Before Pilate

  8. classification • FL Ptg E972 RA GH 1 (Ghent Altarpiece; from National Gallery of Art Image Database) • 371.1 E97J 19AG1 (a)6 (Adam, from Ghent Altarpiece; from UCSD Roger) • B390 E9755 20Ghe1B (Adam, from Ghent Altarpiece; from Bryn Mawr Image Collection)

  9. AACR • organization of rule book aids understanding and use • general chapter followed by format chapters and references • access points

  10. AACR vs CCO • CCO covers things that AACR doesn’t address, e.g., database structure, work and image, relationships (between works, with authorities), subject headings • CCO is “new” though it builds on legacy

  11. Resource description and access (RDA) • arrangement • pt. 1: resource description • pt. 2: relationships • pt. 3: access point control • http://www.collectionscanada.ca/jsc/rdaprospectus.html

  12. MARC • pour anything into MARC but AACR fits best • grew up with AACR and its predecessors • data structure standard • expedites mapping

  13. AACR & MARC • working together and getting tangled • data content • data structure • data values • MARC alone doesn’t suffice • similarly, VRA Core needed rule book • voilà ...

  14. Cataloging cultural objects

  15. AACR & MARC • headings and attributes • attributes “embedded” in MARC tagging • AACR needs other documentation • subject headings: SCM:SH • AACR builds headings • MARC encodes headings • separation of “bib” and authority records

  16. AACR & LC/NAF • AACR builds headings • MARC encodes headings • separation of “bib” and authority records

  17. AACR & LC/NAF • AACR2/NAF heading = Motherwell, Robert • ULAN “heading” = Motherwell, Robert (American painter, 1915-1991)

  18. Core 4 (XML) <agentSet> <display>Motherwell, Robert (American painter, 1915-1991)</display> <agent> <name type=“personal” vocab=“ULAN” refid= “500016415”>Motherwell, Robert</name> <culture>American</culture> <dates type=“life”> <earliestDate>1915</earliestDate> <latestDate>1991</latestDate> </dates> <role vocab=“AAT” refid=“300025136”>painter (artist)</role> </agent> </agentSet>

  19. Functional requirements for authority records(FRAR) • built on need for headings, not how an authorized entity can be represented in different data structures • doesn’t solve my NAF/ULAN/Core-XML dilemma

  20. AACR & LC/NAF • more significant use of authority information • subject hierarchies • geographic hierarchies • cultural context • subject context

  21. AAT sample hierarchy <houses by form: massing or shape> A-frame houses beehive houses foursquare houses garrison houses I-houses ranch houses saltbox houses split-level houses tower houses

  22. TGN sample hierarchy Names: Tombouctou (preferred, C,V,N) Timbuktu (C,V,N) Hierarchical Position: World (facet) Africa (continent) Mali (nation) Tombouctou, Région de (region) Tombouctou (inhabited place)

  23. NAF to SAF • AACR-style used in SAF • headings • qualifiers • broader-term reference • relationship to topical subject headings

  24. buildings • generally established in SAF unless considered corporate body • churches • palazzi as venues • name change, historical subjects

  25. other vocabularies • AACR/MARC world expects headings • AAT facets • noun form for subject heading • adjective for modifier • ULAN biographical and contextual qualifiers, not just the name • qualifiers manifested as attributes in XML

  26. AAT: terms and phrases architecture (discipline) ALT: architectural architecture (object genre) if used as adjective, context needed for disambiguity

  27. mapping • thesaurus to thesaurus in MARC • awkward • loses hierarchy • conflicts • LCSH: Motion picture plays (UF Screenplays) • AAT: screenplays (motion picture plays is one of alternates)

  28. AACR/MARC: beyond books • bookish orientation (works best for books) • granularity expectation in opac • opacs and indexes and finding aids and ... • web browsers don’t have such expectations

  29. AACR/MARC: beyond books • relation to other cataloging documentation • format guidelines (APPM, Betz, AMIM, CONSER manual, cartographic materials manual) • SCM:SH

  30. MARC AMC, APPM, DACS • archives and mss cataloging tradition • description • quasi-self-describing, mostly verbal • closer to museum and VR than to books • finding aid as beginning of access to collections, supplemented by interaction with archivist • “collections” vs “groups” (CCO pt. 1, IV)

  31. Encoded Archival Description (EAD) • hierarchy • good for collections, not so effective for individual mss or objects, controlled archivally

  32. Functional requirements for bibliographic records (FRBR) • retrospective application • provides theoretical basis for revision of cataloging rules • assumes multiple iterations (work, expression, manifestation, item)

  33. FRBR may be found at: FRBR in PDF: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.pdf FRBR in HTML: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.htm IFLA Cataloguing Section FRBR Review Group http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/wgfrbr/wgfrbr.htm

  34. iterations & relationships • work, expression, manifestation, item • relationship of whole to whole • emphasis on WEMI rather than working together

  35. FRVRR (pronounced “fervor”) • functional requirements for visual resource records • collocation as with FRBR but collocating in a different way

  36. Sol Lewitt, new wall drawings at PaceWildenstein, New York, 1998

  37. Rembrandt,“The three crosses”(2nd state of 4)

  38. Rembrandt,“The three crosses”(4th state of 4)

  39. Memling pair in Berlin and Paris,joined for recent show at Frick Collection

  40. PalladioVilla Rotunda

  41. Jefferson’s design for the White House,based on Villa Rotunda

  42. FRBR/FRVRR as relationship builder • Jefferson to Palladio • preparatory study to another work • heading for work = uniform title • artwork as subject

  43. “Portrait of Katherine [studying Rembrandt’s “Three trees”]”by Keith Shaw Williams, ca. 1948(for sale at Childs Gallery, Boston)

  44. FRVRR • visual resources needs are different • not so much whole to whole • work/part (altarpieces, built complexes, studies) • work/view (VR catalogers are rarely cataloging the art work; CCO is mostly aimed at VR catalogers) • FROR: object records in museum context, focus probably on accession (“catalog level” in CDWA)

  45. cataloging CULTURAL objects • context • material • genre / form • iconography • function • curricular / educational

  46. Wednesday, April 26The “C Word”: Is Contextualizing A Work of Art Essential to its Reception?Can a work of art stand on its own? Is knowing the historical, cultural, political, and social background of the artwork important to deepening understanding? Dramaturgs and educational leaders present highly different views on the subject.[from an email notice to New York Theatre Workshop subscribers, 22 April 2006]

  47. FRBR user tasks • find • identify: who, what, where, when • what are you cataloging? • AACR: item in hand • CCO: object in its context • select • obtain

  48. FRBR & AACR/RDA • RDA more aware of FRBR theories • RDA more based on separation of description and access, e.g., less cataloger intervention in basic description