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CCO in Context: bibliographical & archival standards. CCO Boot Camp ALA, New Orleans, June 2006 Sherman Clarke New York University Libraries some conceptual differences & terminology. “what are you cataloging?” AACR2 0.24 “cardinal principle” - the item in hand

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cco in context bibliographical archival standards

CCO in Context:bibliographical & archival standards

CCO Boot Camp

ALA, New Orleans, June 2006

Sherman Clarke

New York University Libraries

some conceptual differences terminology
some conceptual differences & terminology
  • “what are you cataloging?”
    • AACR2 0.24 “cardinal principle” - the item in hand
      • reproduction exception & versions
    • cultural objects - the item in hand for museums, the representation of that object for visual resource collections
  • FRBR Group 1 entities (work, expression, manifestation, item)
  • cultural objects
    • the “work” is what you are cataloging before you can catalog an image of it
    • Work Type - broad classification
self describing
  • books, serials and other printed resources
  • maps
  • videos (container)
  • not only self-describing but relatively permanent
from the top of the great falls yellowstone 1871 tm used as title on gerald peters gallery page
“From the top of the Great Falls, Yellowstone, 1871, TM” (used as title on Gerald Peters Gallery page)
anglo american cataloguing rules aacr
Anglo-American cataloguing rules(AACR)
  • continuation of practice, maturity
  • rule book
  • description AND access: not separate nor equivalent
  • data content standard
    • expedites sharing of cataloging records / metadata
cco example of capitalization from draft version p 41
CCO: example of capitalization(from draft version, p. 41)
  • o Record for the Whole
    • Work Type: prayer book
    • Title: Prayer Book of Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg
  • o Record for the Part
    • Work Type: illumination
    • Title: Christ Led Before Pilate
  • FL Ptg E972 RA GH 1 (Ghent Altarpiece; from National Gallery of Art Image Database)
  • 371.1 E97J 19AG1 (a)6 (Adam, from Ghent Altarpiece; from UCSD Roger)
  • B390 E9755 20Ghe1B (Adam, from Ghent Altarpiece; from Bryn Mawr Image Collection)
  • organization of rule book aids understanding and use
    • general chapter followed by format chapters and references
    • access points
aacr vs cco
  • CCO covers things that AACR doesn’t address, e.g., database structure, work and image, relationships (between works, with authorities), subject headings
  • CCO is “new” though it builds on legacy
resource description and access rda
Resource description and access (RDA)
  • arrangement
    • pt. 1: resource description
    • pt. 2: relationships
    • pt. 3: access point control
  • pour anything into MARC but AACR fits best
  • grew up with AACR and its predecessors
  • data structure standard
    • expedites mapping
aacr marc
  • working together and getting tangled
    • data content
    • data structure
    • data values
  • MARC alone doesn’t suffice
  • similarly, VRA Core needed rule book
  • voilà ...
aacr marc1
  • headings and attributes
    • attributes “embedded” in MARC tagging
  • AACR needs other documentation
    • subject headings: SCM:SH
  • AACR builds headings
  • MARC encodes headings
  • separation of “bib” and authority records
aacr lc naf
  • AACR builds headings
  • MARC encodes headings
  • separation of “bib” and authority records
aacr lc naf1
  • AACR2/NAF heading = Motherwell, Robert
  • ULAN “heading” = Motherwell, Robert (American painter, 1915-1991)
core 4 xml
Core 4 (XML)


<display>Motherwell, Robert (American painter, 1915-1991)</display>


<name type=“personal” vocab=“ULAN” refid= “500016415”>Motherwell, Robert</name>


<dates type=“life”>




<role vocab=“AAT” refid=“300025136”>painter (artist)</role>



functional requirements for authority records frar
Functional requirements for authority records(FRAR)
  • built on need for headings, not how an authorized entity can be represented in different data structures
  • doesn’t solve my NAF/ULAN/Core-XML dilemma
aacr lc naf2
  • more significant use of authority information
    • subject hierarchies
    • geographic hierarchies
    • cultural context
    • subject context
aat sample hierarchy
AAT sample hierarchy

<houses by form: massing or shape>

A-frame houses

beehive houses

foursquare houses

garrison houses


ranch houses

saltbox houses

split-level houses

tower houses

tgn sample hierarchy
TGN sample hierarchy

Names: Tombouctou (preferred, C,V,N)

Timbuktu (C,V,N) Hierarchical Position:

World (facet)

Africa (continent)

Mali (nation)

Tombouctou, Région de (region)

Tombouctou (inhabited place)

naf to saf
  • AACR-style used in SAF
    • headings
    • qualifiers
    • broader-term reference
    • relationship to topical subject headings
  • generally established in SAF unless considered corporate body
    • churches
    • palazzi as venues
    • name change, historical subjects
other vocabularies
other vocabularies
  • AACR/MARC world expects headings
    • AAT facets
      • noun form for subject heading
      • adjective for modifier
    • ULAN biographical and contextual qualifiers, not just the name
      • qualifiers manifested as attributes in XML
aat terms and phrases
AAT: terms and phrases

architecture (discipline)

ALT: architectural

architecture (object genre)

if used as adjective, context needed for disambiguity

  • thesaurus to thesaurus in MARC
    • awkward
    • loses hierarchy
  • conflicts
    • LCSH: Motion picture plays (UF Screenplays)
    • AAT: screenplays (motion picture plays is one of alternates)
aacr marc beyond books
AACR/MARC: beyond books
  • bookish orientation (works best for books)
  • granularity expectation in opac
    • opacs and indexes and finding aids and ...
    • web browsers don’t have such expectations
aacr marc beyond books1
AACR/MARC: beyond books
  • relation to other cataloging documentation
    • format guidelines (APPM, Betz, AMIM, CONSER manual, cartographic materials manual)
    • SCM:SH
marc amc appm dacs
  • archives and mss cataloging tradition
    • description
      • quasi-self-describing, mostly verbal
    • closer to museum and VR than to books
    • finding aid as beginning of access to collections, supplemented by interaction with archivist
    • “collections” vs “groups” (CCO pt. 1, IV)
encoded archival description ead
Encoded Archival Description (EAD)
  • hierarchy
  • good for collections, not so effective for individual mss or objects, controlled archivally
functional requirements for bibliographic records frbr
Functional requirements for bibliographic records (FRBR)
  • retrospective application
  • provides theoretical basis for revision of cataloging rules
  • assumes multiple iterations (work, expression, manifestation, item)
frbr may be found at
FRBR may be found at:



IFLA Cataloguing Section FRBR Review Group

iterations relationships
iterations & relationships
  • work, expression, manifestation, item
  • relationship of whole to whole
  • emphasis on WEMI rather than working together
frvrr pronounced fervor
FRVRR (pronounced “fervor”)
  • functional requirements for visual resource records
  • collocation as with FRBR but collocating in a different way
frbr frvrr as relationship builder
FRBR/FRVRR as relationship builder
  • Jefferson to Palladio
  • preparatory study to another work
  • heading for work = uniform title
  • artwork as subject
“Portrait of Katherine [studying Rembrandt’s “Three trees”]”by Keith Shaw Williams, ca. 1948(for sale at Childs Gallery, Boston)
  • visual resources needs are different
  • not so much whole to whole
  • work/part (altarpieces, built complexes, studies)
  • work/view (VR catalogers are rarely cataloging the art work; CCO is mostly aimed at VR catalogers)
  • FROR: object records in museum context, focus probably on accession (“catalog level” in CDWA)
cataloging cultural objects1
cataloging CULTURAL objects
  • context
  • material
  • genre / form
  • iconography
  • function
    • curricular / educational

Wednesday, April 26The “C Word”: Is Contextualizing A Work of Art Essential to its Reception?Can a work of art stand on its own? Is knowing the historical, cultural, political, and social background of the artwork important to deepening understanding? Dramaturgs and educational leaders present highly different views on the subject.[from an email notice to New York Theatre Workshop subscribers, 22 April 2006]

frbr user tasks
FRBR user tasks
  • find
  • identify: who, what, where, when
    • what are you cataloging?
      • AACR: item in hand
      • CCO: object in its context
  • select
  • obtain
frbr aacr rda
  • RDA more aware of FRBR theories
  • RDA more based on separation of description and access, e.g., less cataloger intervention in basic description
sharing dreams
sharing dreams
  • thesaural hierarchies
    • aka (Getty web interface combined with vocabularies)
  • social tagging / community cataloging / folksonomies
    • STEVE =
further reading
Further reading:
  • “Cataloguing cultural objects: new descriptive cataloguing guidelines for the cultural heritage community” by Ann Baird Whiteside, Art documentation, v. 24, no. 2 (2005), p. 16-18
  • Fundamental requirements for bibliographic records (FRBR): hype or cure-all? Edited by Patrick Le Boeuf. (Haworth Information Press, 2005) (also published as Cataloging & classification quarterly, v. 39, no. 3/4)
  • The future of the descriptive cataloging rules. Edited by Brian E.C. Schottlaender. (ALA, 1998)
    • “serials perspective” by Crystal Graham
    • “Archival description and new paradigms” by Steven Hensen
sites projects discussed
Sites/projects discussed
  • VRA Core 4 (beta)
  • Getty vocabularies
  • Categories for the description of works of art
  • Morgan Library: mss and images through MARC records
  • National Gallery of Art library catalog
  • Plymouth State opac using WordPress
the final version of this presentation may be found at