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BioFuels Activities in Mississippi . Sumesh Arora Mississippi Alternative Energy Enterprise - Mississippi Technology Alliance Southern Bio-Products Conference March 5, 2004. E-Diesel. What are BioFuels?. B-10. B-20. Significance of Biofuels. N ational Security

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BioFuels Activities in Mississippi

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biofuels activities in mississippi

BioFuels Activities in Mississippi

Sumesh Arora

Mississippi Alternative Energy Enterprise

- Mississippi Technology Alliance

Southern Bio-Products Conference

March 5, 2004

significance of biofuels
Significance of Biofuels
  • National Security
  • Increased Energy Independence
  • Creates Jobs – improved farm economy
  • Environmental Benefits


biodiesel emissions
Biodiesel Emissions

EPA: A comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions: Draft Technical Report

EPA420-P-02-001, Oct. 2002

why use ethanol
Why Use Ethanol?
  • 10% ethanol-gasoline blend reduces carbon monoxide emissions by up to 30%.
  • Over 10% all gasoline in the US contained ethanol in 2002.
  • All new vehicles are ethanol-ready.
  • Ethanol reduces our demand for imported gasoline by 100,000 barrels each day.
projects in mississippi


Projects in Mississippi

Feasibility Studies





ethanol process and feedstocks
Ethanol Process and Feedstocks
  • US Capacity: 2.85 billion gallons/year
    • 72 Plants, 10 under construction
    • > 90% derived from cornstarch (fermentation)
  • Gasification of biomass
  • Syngas fermentation
  • Other potential ethanol feedstocks:
    • Wheat, sorghum, potatoes, wood waste, corn cobs, straws, corn hulls, corn stover, grasses (switch grass), kenaf, bagasse, MSW
ethanol plant activity
Ethanol Plant Activity

Southern Ethanol

45 MM gal/year

Mississippi Ethanol

1 MM gal/year


EOH Energy LLC

50 MM gal/year




Pearson BioEnergy

3 MM gal/year

Southern Ethanol

30 MM gal/year


commercial ethanol activity
Commercial Ethanol Activity

Southern Ethanol Company, LLC

  • First company to announce sites in Amory and Vicksburg
  • Amory construction expected to begin in early 2004 and complete by mid 2005
  • A 30 mm gal/year plant may consume about 12 million bushels of corn per year
  • which translates to about 30,000 bushels of corn per day
  • A sizeable portion of the corn used could be locally grown
  • TDF (Tire Derived Fuel) will be a unique feature of the Amory plant
  • Greenville may be a third site

EOH Energy, LLC

  • Announced in April 2003 to construct a corn-based ethanol plant in Greenville
  • Plant capacity of more than 50 million gallons of ethanol per year
  • Expected investment in the plant is about $58 million
  • Plant expected to open in the fall of 2004
  • Working with one of the major ethanol plant design and construction companies in the US to build this plant
ethanol pilot scale activities
Ethanol Pilot Scale Activities

Pearson Bioenergy Inc., Aberdeen, MS

  • Involved in pioneering work in non-fermentation based waste biomass to ethanol technology.
  • A 400 pound per hour pilot plant completed in early 2004 is in limited operation
  • A 3 million gallon per year prototype plant is expected to open mid - 2004
  • The pilot plant capable of evaluating of various biomass feedstocks

Mississippi Ethanol, LLC, Winona, MS

  • Innovative gasification process to convert biomass into ethanol
  • The design for a 1 million gallon per year ethanol pilot plant is complete
  • Expected start date of the pilot plant is in the summer of 2004.
  • This plant will utilize 30 dry tons per day of wood waste as the feedstock
  • A 1/10th scale version of this plant is being assembled at Mississippi State University (MSU) for research purposes
  • This project is getting technical assistance from MSU engineering faculty and staff of the university’s Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL).
ethanol research activities
Ethanol Research Activities

Biomax Gasifier

  • Mississippi State University is home to one of only six of such gasification units in the world
  • The object is to efficiently convert various biomass materials into gases, and subsequently into energy-related and value-added chemicals such as ethanol and acetate.
  • The machine, which arrived on campus in August 2003, is built by Community Power Corporation (CPC) of Littleton, Colorado.
  • Joint research project between MSU and Oklahoma State University
  • Two-year-old U.S. Department of Agriculture grant that evenly divides about $1 million a year between the two schools.
  • Experimenting with grasses and residues from various crop processes such as cotton gin waste, rice husks and chicken litter.
more research activities
More Research Activities
  • The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass formed in 2000
  • Funding from the US Department of Energy and the State of Mississippi
  • Total funding is $8.1 Million over a six year period
  • Members include Mississippi State University (lead university), Jackson State University, University of Mississippi, and University of Southern Mississippi

The mission of the Consortium is to develop technologies that are capable of producing valuable products from Mississippi-grown biomass resources, development of additional research capabilities within Mississippi, and the education of future engineers and scientists within Mississippi with expertise in the production of chemicals from biomass feeds.

ethanol research
Ethanol Research…
  • Syngas Fermentation – The MSU Team has isolated cultures capable of producing ethanol at a rate several times that of the best rates reported in literature
  • Acid Hydrolysis – USM has greatly improved conversion performance via better reactor design and operation and is developing new membrane separation systems
  • JSU has developed a pre-treatment technique that improves fermentation of the hydrolyzate by removing inhibitors prior to fermentation.
  • Enzymatic Conversion – UM is working on the isolation of novel enzymes
mississippi land use
Mississippi-Land Use

Rich in Biomass


Excellent choice as a low sulfur, high lubricity, fuel additive

biodiesel process














Vegetable Oils, Used

Cooking Oil,

Animal Fats




Crude Biodiesel



If desired

Neutralizing Acid






Phase Separation


Biodiesel Process




biodiesel plant activity
Biodiesel Plant Activity

Biodiesel of Mississippi

15 MM gal/year


Renewable Fuels, Inc

2 MM gal/year



Biodiesel of Mississippi

40 MM gal/year


400 gal/day


commercial biodiesel activity
Commercial Biodiesel Activity

Environmental Energy Corporation (EECo), Meridian

  • EECo is the first producer of biodiesel in the state
  • Current production capacity is about 400 gallons per day with potential of 2,000 gallons per day
  • Operation uses yellow grease from regional independent restaurants

Renewable Fuels, Inc. (RFI), Tunica

  • Evaluating biodiesel production technologies and feedstock sources for year
  • Considering a 1.5 million to 3 million gallon per year plant
  • This plant is expected to be able to use yellow grease and soybean oil

Biodiesel of Mississippi, Nettleton

  • Approximately 15 million gallons per year plant under construction in Nettleton
  • Currently awaiting necessary environmental permits from Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ)
  • Based solely on soybean oil as the feedstock
  • Since 1 gallon of soybean oil yields one gallon of biodiesel, this plant is expected to use:
    • 15 million gallons of soybean oil annually
    • Requirement of roughly 10.7 million bushels of soybeans
    • or 240,000 acres (assuming a soybean yield of 45 bushels per acre)
  • Considering co-locating a biodiesel plant with the Bungee soybean oil processing facility in Marks, Mississippi.
biodiesel research activity
Develop numerous potential candidate lipid feedstocks included blended feedstocks

Potential feedstock candidates in the Southeast US include:

poultry and swine fats

oils extracted from genetically manipulated plants

novel plant species typically not considered lipid feedstocks

and other lipid sources selected based on a thorough technical and economic assessment.

Evaluate innovative extraction techniques such as:

co-solvent amended supercritical extraction

propane extraction

Extraction and separation of novel secondary products, such as selected lipids (lecithin) and fatty acids (DHA and EPA), prior to transesterification will be researched

Improve environmental performance including reducing oxide emissions and utilization of more environmentally friendly process chemical reagents.

Potential ability to customize product performance to customer needs.

Research team consists of process engineers, mechanical engineers, plant scientists, biochemists, economists, chemists, biologists, and microbiologists.

Biodiesel Research Activity

Apply a true biorefinery approach



Feedstocks = 70% production cost

biodiesel demonstration
Biodiesel Demonstration
  • Mississippi Development Authority – Energy Division grant to the Lauderdale County School District for the 2003-2004 school-year
  • 9 buses at West Lauderdale Elementary School are currently operating on a B10 blend
  • Biodiesel is being purchased from the local biodiesel producer in Meridian
  • No operational problems reported to date
ethanol feasibility study
Ethanol Feasibility Study
  • Sparks Companies, Inc. & MSU Cooperative Extension Service was asked by the Mississippi, Alternative Energy Enterprise to conduct a statewide feasibility study regarding the prospects of ethanol production
  • There were two areas of primary concentration - the overall state potential for ethanol production and the assessment of five specific production sites
  • Study completed in January 2003
report summary
Report Summary
  • General Theme: the State should proceed with caution, this is predicated on the following conclusions
    • Supply-Side Issues - there needs to be continued expansion in MS corn production - critical for ethanol success (MS net importer of corn for animal feed)
    • There are significant regional differences in corn production
    • The animal livestock industry plays a vital role in the balance of corn in MS
    • Some proposed production areas/sites are significantly better relative to the other sites
    • There are important financial variables/issues to consider
major drivers to the model
Major Drivers to the Model


  • MS Producer Payment
  • DDG Prices
  • Ethanol Prices


  • Feedstock
  • Energy Prices - Natural Gas
  • Cost of Capital
biodiesel feasibility study



Biodiesel Feasibility Study

Completed in February 2004

Mississippi Land, Water and Timber Resources Board


biodiesel study participants
Biodiesel Study Participants

Chemical Engineering

Department of

Agriculture and


Small Farms

Development Center

Frazier Barnes

& Associates



feedstock availability
Feedstock Availability

Average Cost: $0.23/lb

Average Cost: $0.25/lb

  • Soybean Oil: 38.6 million gallons
  • Cottonseed Oil: 16.0 million gallons
  • Yellow Grease: 6 million gallons

Average Cost: $0.11/lb

biodiesel technology
Biodiesel Technology
  • Oilseed Processing Technology Review
      • Mechanical Extraction vs. Solvent Extraction
  • Biodiesel Technology Review & Providers
      • Biodiesel produced must meet or exceed the ASTM specifications as per the standard D6751
      • Catalyst Conversion



Capital Costs

Product Yield and Quality

Economy of Scale

Feedstock Flexibility

who can use biodiesel
Who Can Use Biodiesel?

Anyone who uses Petroleum Diesel…Annual US Consumption

…57 billion gallons/year

B2 = 1.4 billion gallons/year

B10 = 5.7 billion gallons/year

B20 = 11.4 billion gallons/year

mississippi market potential
Mississippi Market Potential
  • Total petroleum diesel consumption
    • 760 million gallons/year
  • @ B2 = 15 million gallons/year
  • @ B20 = 300 million gallons/year
  • Farm Use @ B2 = 1.6 million gallons/year
  • Farm Use @ B20 = 32 million gallons/year
commercialization options
Commercialization Options


  • Stand-alone production facility
    • Biodiesel from virgin oils and recycled fats purchased on the open market
    • Simple Payback > 10 years (no subsidy)
  • Integrated Facility
    • Process Mississippi grown soybeans into oil, biodiesel, and other co-products
    • Simple Payback ~ 7-8 years (no subsidy)
  • Current federal subsidies reduce payback periods by about 3 years

Paybacks based on 13 million gallons/year plant

study recommendations
Study Recommendations

Production Side Incentives

  • Consider producer payments
  • Consider blender credits to offset excise tax on sales of biodiesel
  • Direct investment in integrated soybean storage/processing and biodiesel production and distribution facilities
  • Consider tax credits on equipment used for biodiesel production, distribution or blending

Market Adoption Incentives

  • Adopt the use of biodiesel blends in state fleets and other municipal fleets such as school buses
  • Special monetary incentives for on-farm biodiesel consumption.
  • Encourage the use of biodiesel blends in private fleets by offering monetary incentives
  • Adopt use of biodiesel for stationary applications such as generators
  • Encourage use of biodiesel in the marine transportation sector.
  • Invest in renewable energy education
  • Invest in research and development focused on lowering the production cost of biodiesel and finding additional uses for biodiesel and the byproduct glycerin
state legislative actions
State Legislative Actions

House Bill 1130 (2002)

  • Considered to be one of the strongest pieces of legislation in the nation in support of ethanol.
  • The bill authorized a producer’s payment of 20 cents per gallon of ethanol produced up to a maximum of 6 million dollars per fiscal year, per plant.
  • These payments my last up to 10 years from the start of production and are set to expire in 2015. [Money not appropriated in 2002]

House Bill 1596 (2003)

  • 2003 regular session authorized the Mississippi Land, Water and Timber Resources Board to set aside $1,000,000 for the purpose of providing funds to the Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce for use in making payments to ethanol producers under Section 69-51-5 during the State Fiscal Year 2003 – 2004.

House Bill 928 (2003)

  • As sent to the Governor in the 2003 Regular Session, amended House Bill 1130 to include an unspecified producer payment for Biodiesel as well. Issues pertaining to definition of biodiesel and method of calculation for the producer payments require additional clarification.
barriers for biofuels
Barriers for BioFuels



Integration into the current Fuel Distribution System

Need Legislative Support




Biofuels are

Contact Information:

Mississippi Alternative Energy Enterprise