ASSUMPTIONS Identification and test of external factors influencing DoSE’s ability to deliver the planned outputs and to achieve the purpose
ECD • That existing centres will continue to provide ECD services at same levels • Adequate resources will be available for growth in GER • Can attract that many additional children • That this is a useful goal • That parents can continue to afford to pay for private ECD • Parents can continue to sustain operation of ECDs attached to lower basic schools • That qualified teachers/monitors are available
Assumptions for Basic Education • That adequate funding for education would be available for 10 years from Gov and donor community for both investments and recurrent costs • That basic education is free and compulsory • That macro-economic environment improves • That good quality education personnel can be recruited and retained • That special needs and disadvantaged children can be accommodated • That adequate qualitative inputs are available • That parents accept education as priority especially in traditional areas • That population growth rate will decline (now 2.1) • That communities willingly participate in school mgmt and developmentand head teachers will allow communities to do maintenance • That NGOs/civil society are supportive of these education goals • That political will is there for free and compulsory education • The Madrassa proprietor and secretariate will continue to cooperate with DoSE
Assumptions for Adult and non-formal: • That NGOs and CBOs will accept service contracts, and will have capacity to deliver • That funds would be adequate, sustained and efficiently utilised • That populations would be willing to learn • That adequate, qualified and motivated facilitators would be available • That the enabling environment exists to supportcontinued literacy
Assumptions for Secondary education: • That private sector will continue to provide and finance senior secondary education • That area councils will have funds to support schools • That adequate budget would be available for the absolute increase in SSS places • That adequate funding is available for curriculum development and implementation • That the economy can absorb the increased number of SSS graduates • That Gov can offer adequate incentives to recruit and retain qualified Gambian SSS teachers • That girls will continue to be 50% of enrolment
Assumptions for Tertiary education and research: • Economy continues to grow to absorb graduates • Education system is training in the right disciplines in the right numbers to meet country’s needs • Sufficient number of qualified female applicants • Funding in place for planned activities, including observatory • Adequate numbers of qualified lecturers can be recruited and retained • Effective managers can be recruited and retained • Incentives for personnel can be put into place • Parents/students would be willing and able to pay 33.3% of real unit cost • There is political will to merge tertiary institutions into UTG • Qualified researchers are available
Assumptions for TVET: • Tertiary Ed Directorate can articulate TVET policy and regulate implementation • Financial and teacher resources for UBE pre-TVET courses are available • Students will opt for skills training • Perception about TVET as being for failures will change • Accreditation system acceptable to private sector is established for all TVET centres • Adequate funding (including Training Levy) available for TVET • LMIS managers will be retained in DoSE
Assumptions for Quality assurance: • Learning targets are realistic and examinations are based on these targets • Readiness of learners • Ongoing support from headteachers • Availability of quality human resources • Inadequate teachers can be removed from civil service • Willingness to enforce reporting rules • Capacity for curriculum revision • Willingness and ability of communities to participate in PPM • Readiness of teachers to cooperate in PPM • Sensitisation and clear messages to communicate to communities • Availability of relevant and validated textbooks (Survey on prevalence required) • Alignment between textbooks and teacher syllabus • Sufficient number of Gambian authors (Promotion of Gambian textbook publishing) • Adequate number of female teachers • Adequate deployment to remote and poor areas • Adequate staffing accommodation
Assumptions for Sector Management: • That human and financial resources are available • That priorities remain unchanged • That PMO and Finance agree to changes that lead to creation of posts • That DOSE can attract and retain qualified staff • That DOSE has influence over budget transfers to LGAs • That budget transfers will sufficiently cover needs • That timely data collection is accurately done at school/RED levels • That PMO/PSC agree to performance awards/sanctions proposed • That qualified Records staff are keeping files accurately and honestly • That performance monitoring can be done consistently and fairly • That incentives/sanctions effectively improve performance • That HR decisions will not have outside political interference • That work environment will help attract and retain staff • That Government salary review leads to improved salary scales • That career development opportunities are available for staff • That computerizing records management is permitted by National Records Service at PMO
SustainabilityAnalysis Can delivery of services and benefits be continued after the completion of the project implementation?
Basic Education: Sustainability • Maintenance of equipment and vehicles including fuel • Capacity building, esp. long-term training • Resources & capacities exist for rolling out Whole School Development model • Pilot is adapted to Gambian conditions over time even if it goes beyond program period • Involvement of other local partners in development phase (decentralization) • Updating of ICT curriculum implementation (25% of hardware costs annually) • HIV/AIDS orphans may require significant budget resources • Free and compulsory basic education requires funds, political will and ability to implement and enforce • Construction, maintenance and rehabilitation require both funding and technical capacity at local levels • Community involvement in maintenance will require their willingness, funding to ensure equity and training to ensure capacity • Equalization grants from Government will have to address differences in fund-raising ability among LGAs
Secondary Education Sustainability Issues • Funding related to classroom construction • Funding for facilities maintenance • Capacity of collecting, updating, processing and disseminating education data • Motivation and retention of teachers • Availability of sufficient resources to support career development plan implementation • Implementation of M&E strategies (PTA & Boards of Governors) • Availability of resources to support the scholarship program • Recruitment and retention of curriculum developers • Efficient use of resources
Secondary Education • Funding related to classroom construction • Intensified D/Shifting classrooms • Sources of funding • Funding for facilities maintenance • Maintenance plan/policy • Draw up MOU between Board of Governors and the communities • Capacity building of communities • Capacity of collecting, updating, processing and disseminating education data • Train Regional Planners • Train IT staff and provide IT equipment to Regional offices • Regular update of data • Release quarterly reliable data • Motivation and retention of teachers • Clear career path developed • Staff incentive packages • Recruit, motivate and retain teachers • Implementation of M&E strategies (GIA & Boards of Governors) • Clear M&E systems • Conduct PETS • Availability of resources to support the scholarship program • Involve LGAs, NGOs in scholarship provision • Recruitment and retention of curriculum developers • Panel systems for various subjects • Recruit panelists from school as per activities • Sources of funding • Relevance of secondary education
TESTS ASSUMPTIONS • That adequate funding is available for curriculum development and implementation? (Funding ?) • That Government can offer adequate incentives to recruit and retain qualified Gambian SSS teachers • That girls’ share of enrolment increases to 50% (Adequate number of girls & Willingness of parents to send girls in school)
SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES TERTIARY EDUCATION • Funding after donor support • Human resource capacity • Human, physical and financial resource availability • Continued political will and support • A sustained enabling environment and conditions of service • Availability of qualified candidates for admission to tertiary institutions
Sustainability of TVET OVIs: Activities/Outputs that continue • Increase in enrolment at GTTI • Will require Levy and cost recovery measures to increase enrolment • Activities: Private sector outreach to improve participation in Levy; cost recovery at registered training institutions fully collected by NTA; validate collection of GAT with Commissioner of Income Tax; improve organization of private sector via Chamber of Commerce and Industry • Equity may be adversely affected if cost recovery is keeping out the less well-off • Activities: Accurate identification of needy students for subvention • LMIS updating biannually & continued maintenance • Has to be sustained under Government budget • Attracting and retaining skilled staff within Government budget • Activities: Review Government salaries for specialized skills; provide opportunities for training and skills upgrading; work environment enhancement with appropriate tools for working effectively; • Institutions providing labor market information are able to do in time and accurately (Central Statistics, training institutions, DOSE, private sector) • Activities: Formal data sharing arrangement put in place; surveys will be conducted to confirm data accuracy;
Sustainability of TVET (continued) • Accreditation of Prior Learning • Funding for NTA staff for accreditation and staff & equipment for data maintenance will have to secured • Activities: Evaluation of all existing programs to determine quality of training provided and standard of program; Establish database for accumulating credit information, the use of which will generate funds • Government continues to provide 75% of Levy to NTA (0.25% of Gross Annual Turnover) as per National Education and Technical Training Levy Act signed in 21 July 2005 • Levy may not be sufficient to cover focus areas of NTA • Activities: Prioritization of NTA target areas to fit within budget • Localization of technical/vocational and commercial examinations • Cost recovery from test takers will cover costs of local exams • Agreement of stakeholders on continued quality of localized exams • Activities: Establish trade committees to work on curricula for each major skill area; Establish unit cost for local examinations development to determine if localization will lead to cost savings; sensitization of industry and private sector to advantages and disadvantages of localization process
Sustainability of TVET (continued) • Entrepreneurship training for new job entrants • Provision of courses for entrepreneurship including financial management, business development, etc. • Availability of financing for new business creation • Activities: Establish pilot training program at GTTI because both trainers and facilities are in place; Bring together micro-finance institutions including Indigenous Business Advisory Service (IBAS), Gambia Women’s Finance Association (GAWFA), etc. • In-service training for private sector employees • Availability of coherent training plans by private sector enterprises • Activities: Assist private sector enterprises in the development of training plans and finance a significant share of the implementation • Availability of training providers and trainers • Activities: Database of training providers including the quality and quantity of courses provided; Evaluation of courses by students; Tracer studies of training course completers
Tertiary Ed Directorate can articulate TVET policy and regulate implementation Need qualified staff Should post-basic TVET activities be under Tertiary Ed Directorate? Financial and teacher resources for UBE pre-TVET courses are available Positions already exist Accreditation system acceptable to private sector is established for all TVET centres Private sector involvement is key LMIS managers will be retained in DoSE Need conditions of service to improve (financial and non-financial) Localisation of technical, vocational and commercial exams is acceptable to local stakeholders Need involvement from start of private sector Top-grade students will opt for skills training if training leads to better jobs and/or better opportunities for further education Perception about TVET as being for failures will change Adequate funding (including Training Levy) available for TVET Level of investment necessary for meeting all goals, especially rural skills upgrading, may not be available from just Government so other partners have to be brought in Testing Assumptions for TVET
Quality Assurance Programme Area Sustainability issues • Learning targets are realistic and examinations are based on these targets • Capacity exists in system but financial resources need to be ensured. • Feasibility of WAEC to be undertaken. • Upgrading of skills and appropriate technology for WAEC. • Revise MOU between DOSE and WAEC. • 2. Readiness of learners • Support system available at home or in school with a focus on reading and writing. • PPM and WSD fully institutionalized. • Financial resources are needed. • Continuous sensitization of communities and parents. • The bill “free and compulsory education” has to be ratified by National Assembly.
Ongoing support from head teachers Continuous funding for head teacher management training. Revise the education management program at UTG. Financial resources are needed as well as technical assistance for development and implementation Printing capacity needs to be available. Willingness and ability of communities to participate in PPM Sensitisation and continuous dialogue with clear messages to communicate to communities and LGAs. Sensitisation of teachers to cooperate in PPM. Funding is necessary. Rolling out of WSD model Attract an equal number of female heads. Availability of quality human resources Robust teacher training reform and effective in-service training on a regular basis. Policy guidelines need to be in place.
Incentives to retain quality teachers in the system especially female teachers. Funds needed. Incompetent teachers can be removed from civil service Establishment of a performance-based system within HR Directorate. Financial and logistical means need to be in place. Link established with EMIS. Analyse staff capability at HR and provide training as necessary. Technology is needed. Support need to be provided by PMO, PSC, and LGAs. Reform of civil service initiated by the government. Willingness to enforce reporting rules Capacity for curriculum revision Recruitment of curriculum developers and content specialists. Retain trained staff.
Lessons learned from the pilot are positive. Availability of relevant and validated textbooks Survey on prevalence required. Alignment between textbooks and teacher syllabus. Attract sufficient number of Gambian authors and promotion of Gambian textbook publishing. Financial resources required. Adequate deployment to remote and poor areas Provision of staffing accommodation and institutionalise incentive packages (financial and non-financial resources). Establish up-to-date database at regional level. Capacity needs to be developed. Financial resources needed