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Animation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. It is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in a number of ways. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program, although several other forms of presenting animation also exist.


Persistence of visionis the phenomenon of the eye by which an afterimage is thought to persist for approximately one twenty-fifth of a second on the retina.




Peter Mark Roget, who did research in physiology at the University of London, published "Persistence of Vision with Regard to Moving Objects." This book presented the idea that a succession of still images could create the appearance of motion.


The age of movie camera and projector begins .. experimenters discover they can stop the crank and restart it again to obtain special effects. Example: James Stuart Blackton creates "The Enchanted Drawing" in 1900 .. a caricature is drawn with no evidence of an artist

1917 John Bray patents rotoscoping (developed by Max Fleischer)

Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films.[1]

1919 Koko the clown (Max Fleischer) appears




Otto Mesmer creates Felix the Cat


Walt Disney releases "Steamboat Willie" .. an early cartoon w/ sound -- cartoons are now seen as entertainment. Disney innovations over the next 10-20 years include the storyboard, pencil tests, and the multi-plane camera stand (3D effects). Disney also promoted the analysis of real-life motion.


Snow White is released at cost of $1.5M


Fleischer studios create Betty Boop and Popeye

Warner Bros .. Porky Pig, Daffy Duck, and Bugs Bunny appear


Walter Lantz and Woody Woodpecker, Paul Terry and Mighty Mouse, MGM w/ Tom & Jerry (animators William Hanna and Joseph Barbera)


Tron, MAGI, movie with CG premise




Bill Reeves at Lucasfilm publishes techniques for modeling particle systems. "Demo" is Star Trek II: The Wrath of Kahn. The paper also promotes motion blur.


The Last Starfighter, CG is used in place of models


Willow uses morphing in live action film


Wallace and Gromit debut in Nick Park's A Grand Day Out, losing at the Oscars to Park's Creature Comforts. The Little Mermaid signals a revival in Disney animation. The Simpsons gain its own series, starting with a Christmas special.


Disney's Beauty and the Beast becomes the only animation ever nominated for a Best Picture Oscar (losing to The Silence of the Lambs). On TV, The Ren and Stimpy Show is launched by John Kricfalusi, aiming to capture the spirit of anarchic Hollywood cartoons.




The TV show Batman – The Animated Series is praised for its stylish take on the superhero genre.


Tim Burton produces Disney's musical stop-motion feature The Nightmare before Christmas, directed by Henry Selick. Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park revolutionizes the effects blockbuster with its computer-generated dinosaurs


Disney's The Lion King becomes the highest-grossing traditionally animated feature, not taking into account inflation.


John Lasseter's Toy Story is the world's first feature-length CGI cartoon, heralding the biggest animation revolution since Steamboat Willie. In Japan, Mamoru Oshii's feature Ghost in the Shell and Hideaki Anno's TV series Neon Genesis Evangelion, both SF animations, become international hits. Nick Park's The Wrong Trousers wins an Oscar.


The Matrix and its later sequels blur live action and animation in the presentation of the action (influenced by Japanese animation) and its continual digital manipulation of the image at the level of individual frames. Brad Bird's traditional cartoon feature The Iron Giant is praised but fails at the box office.




The Two Towers, the second part of Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings trilogy, introduces Gollum, a CGI character whose movements and expressions are based on actor Andy Serkis. The Blue Sky studio becomes a successful CGI player with Ice Age. Disney's semi-traditional animation Treasure Planet flops disastrously.


Pixar's CGI Finding Nemo becomes the highest-grossing animated feature (surpassed in 2004 by Dreamworks' Shrek 2).


The return of stop-motion, with Tim Burton's The Corpse Bride and Wallace and Gromit The Curse of the Were-Rabbit, by Nick Park and Steve Box. The latter wins an Oscar. Chicken Little, Disney's first in-house CGI film since Dinosaur, has a lukewarm reception.


Disney buys out Pixar animation. The year sees a glut of feature animation: 14 films are scheduled for American release alone.


Viewing Animation Movies

You will be responsible for taking notes on all movies / cartoons / animations that are viewed in class

The format of your notes will be as shown on the next slide.

If you are absent from class you are responsible for getting any notes from another class member, movie segments will not be repeated at a later date.

Movie listings will be published on our web site if you want to review the movies at a later date. You are responsible for obtaining the movies if you wish to do this.


Are there




Movie synopsis worksheet

Name ____________________________________ Period ____ Use complete sentences!

Movie _________________________________ Please use additional sheets of paper if needed.

What is the setting for the majority of the movie?




Who are the main characters in the movie?



Who are the secondary characters? ________________________________________________________________________________



What is the main plot of the movie?






What is the outcome of the movie?






Setting – Describe the area or place where the majority of the action takes place, please be specific.

Secondary characters – These are the supporting characters in a story for example Robin in the Batman series.

Plot – What is the basic description of the conflict in the story?

Outcome – How is the story or plot resolved?



British Film Industry web site, various pages for images of the movie posters