american history chapter 6 the expansion of american industry l.
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American History Chapter 6: The Expansion of American Industry. IV. The Great Strikes. Bellringer. Your employee has just told you that you must work 5 hours extra a week or you are fired. You will not get paid for these hours. Objectives.

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Presentation Transcript
bellringer
Bellringer
  • Your employee has just told you that you must work 5 hours extra a week or you are fired. You will not get paid for these hours.
objectives
Objectives
  • Discover the impact of industrialism on the gulf between rich and poor.
  • Find out the goals of the early labor union in the US.
  • Learn why Eugene V. debs formed the American Railway Union.
  • Study the causes and outcomes of the major strikes in the late 1800s.
a gulf between rich and poor
A) Gulf Between Rich and Poor
  • 1890 – 9% of Americans held 75% of the wealth
  • Workers became politically active
  • Socialism: economic and political philosophy that favors public instead of private control of the means of production
  • Society should run the wealth – and distribute it equally
  • In 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote Communist Manifesto
  • Most Americans opposed socialism – even the poor
b the rise of labor unions
B) The Rise of Labor Unions
  • Early labor unions failed because of depressions NTU and NLU
  • Knights of Labor – allowed men women and African Americans – fought for equal pay for equal work, 8 hour work day, no child labor – a violent strike ended the union
slide6
AFL started by Samuel Gompers

19) Craft Union: only skilled workers – not all workers

  • No African Americans and women – drive wages down – main goal was wages
  • Collective bargaining: process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers
  • Wanted a closed shop – no workers not union members
slide7
Employees took steps to end unions
  • Forbid union meetings
  • Fired union organizers
  • Forced workers to sign “yellow dog” contracts – couldn't join union
  • No collective bargaining during strikes
  • Refused to recognize unions

Quote on page 249 bottom

c railroad workers organize
C) Railroad Workers Organize
  • The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 – B and O Railroad cut wages because of a depression twice – workers strike – militia called in to break strike – riot spread throughout US – Hayes called in federal troops to put it down – government takes side of business
  • Some unions peaceful – Eugene Debs American Railway Union
  • Industrial union: Union that organizes workers from all crafts in a given industry
d strikes rock the nation
D) Strikes Rock the Nation
  • Scabs – negative term for a worker called in by owner to replace striking laborers
  • Anarchists: radicals who oppose all government
a haymarket riot
a) Haymarket Riot
  • Strike at Chicago McCormick reaper factory – got violent when scabs were sent in – police intervened – several dead
  • Protest rally called at Haymarket Square – bomb thrown into police killing one – police fired into crowd – killing many
  • 8 people convicted 4 – hanged – one suicide – 3 pardoned later
b homestead strike of 1892
b) Homestead Strike of 1892
  • At Carnegie Steal plant in Homestead Pennsylvania
  • Carnegie in Europe – partner was Henry Frick
  • Frick tried to cut wages – strike
  • Frick called in the Pinkerton private police force – shootout – several dead
  • Anarchist not involved tried to assassinated Frick
  • Public opinion turned sour – Strike called off.
c pullman strike of 1894
c) Pullman Strike of 1894
  • Built rail cars
  • Pullman built a whole town
  • Cut wages 25% but kept prices of everything else the same
  • Eugene Debs and the ARU got involved – national train stoppage – delayed mail
  • President sent in troops – strike over
  • Government again protected business
review
Review
  • What impact did industrialization have on the gulf between rich and poor?
  • What were the goals of the early labor unions in the US?
  • Why did Eugene Debs organize the American Railway Union?
  • What were the causes and outcomes of the major strikes in the late 1800s?