After the Conflict is Over Canadian & World Politics www.CraigMarlatt.com/school
After the Conflict is Over • Colonialism • Post-Cold War Problems
Investigating Links Quiz • What is the most popular sport in India? • Where did the United Kingdom send many of its criminals in the 1800s? • Which is the city with the largest number of Portuguese-speaking people? • What is the most widely spoken language in the following countries? Angola, Haiti, Nigeria, Chile • What is the most popular sport throughout South and Central America?
Investigating Links Quiz 6. What is the most common religion in the Congo? 7. To which country do most Algerians migrate? 8. Silver from which country financed Spanish wars in the 17th and 18th century? 9. Where did many of the towns and rivers of Ontario get their names? 10. What is the common language of some cities along the west coast of India? 11. Where does the term “Banana Republic” come from?
Investigating Links ANSWERS • Cricket • Australia • Sao Paulo • Portuguese, French, English, Spanish • Soccer • Christianity • France • Mexico
Investigating Links ANSWERS 9. England (United Kingdom) 10. Portuguese (they controlled some port cities along this coast while India was under British rule) 11. Banana republic referred to nations that were practically owned by American Banana importers. • Countries like Ecuador and Honduras relied so much on the export of their banana crops that they had to comply with the companies’ wishes. Today it refers to any country that relies on one or two agricultural products.
Colonialism Defined • Colonialism is the political theory governing colonial expansion and the maintenance of a colonial empire. It is generally associated with a belief that the mores of the colonizer are superior to those of the colonized. • The political theory of post-colonialism argues that many of the problems faced by former colonies are attributable to their colonial exploitation and devaluation.
Colonialism Defined • Others argue that while colonialism may be wrong, that need not imply that it has caused all economic problems of the third world. • A range of former colonies – including Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Mauritius, and Cyprus – are not poor.
Colonialism Defined • Percentage of Territories Belonging to the European/US Colonial Powers (1900) Region Percentage Controlled Africa 90.4% Polynesia 98.9% Asia 56.5% Australia 100.0% Americas 27.2%
Colonialism Defined • At one time or another, every country in North America, South America, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Oceania were colonized by Europeans, with the exceptions of Liberia, Ethiopia, Iran, Pakistan, and Thailand. • Only Europe, the Soviet Union, and the Orient remained untouched by colonial hands.
Colonialism – Apartheid • What was apartheid? • A system of racial discrimination that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. • Are there other countries where a form of race-based discrimination was enforced? • Canada • United States • What were the consequences for the people who lived there?
Colonialism – Apartheid • Apartheid in South Africa • English and Dutch colonizers led to 2 political parties • Afrikaner National Party gained control in the 1940s and wanted to ensure continued control • 1948 apartheid laws maintained white domination while extending racial separation • 1950 Population Registration Act – a white person was “…in appearance obviously a white person or generally accepted as a white person”. The determination that a person was “obviously white” would take into account “his habits, education, and speech and deportment and demeanour.” • 1960s “Grand Apartheid” emphasized territorial separation and police repression
Colonialism – Apartheid • The struggle to end apartheid • justifications of white South Africans • resistance of black South Africans • South Africa’s ejection from the Commonwealth -1961 • economic sanctions in the 1980s • impact of the freeing of Nelson Mandela • anti-apartheid songs • What finally worked? • diplomacy, sanctions, public pressure, …
Post-Cold War Problems • political fragmentation such as in the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia • 1991 break-up of Yugoslavia • 1991 political coup and ensuing break-up of Soviet Union • 1993 break-up of Czechoslovakia
Post-Cold War Problems • the position of the United States as the sole “superpower” nation • checks and balances of multiple superpowers during the World Wars (Britain, Japan, Germany, United States, China, Russia) has been gradually reduced to just one superpower (United States)
Post-Cold War Problems • neo-nationalism • as discussed in Unit 2 of the course, nationalism is on the rise in various parts of the world