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ADVERTISING: Research. Measuring Advertising Effects SALES ?. Product Quality. Competition. Promotion. Price Policy. SALES. The Economy. Distribution. Reasons to Measure Avoid costly mistakes Evaluate strategies Increase efficiency of advertising. Reasons Not to Measure

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measuring advertising effects sales
Measuring Advertising EffectsSALES?

Product Quality



Price Policy


The Economy


measuring advertising effects
Reasons to Measure

Avoid costly mistakes

Evaluate strategies

Increase efficiency of advertising

Reasons Not to Measure

Cost of measurement

Problems with research

Disagreement about what to test

Creative objections

Measuring Advertising Effects
measuring advertising effects1

Focus groups and surveys of consumers


Concept tests


Consumer juries

Physiological measures

Theatre, on-air (split run cable) tests


Recall and Recognition tests (day after)

Measuring Advertising Effects
formative research1
Formative Research

Basic understanding of consumers

  • Existing knowledge, attitude, and behavior
  • Approaches:
    • Focus groups (generate ideas)
    • Small surveys (understand prevalence)
  • Limitations
    • Small samples may not be trustable
    • May not represent the target market
concept testing
Concept Testing

Ideas shown to people in target audience

  • Reactions and evaluations sought
  • Qualitative and/or quantitative data
  • Limitations:
    • Sample sizes are small (not quantifiable)
    • Consumers become instant “experts”
    • Members may not represent the target market
    • Results may seem definitive than they are
  • Company example
consumer juries
Consumer Juries

Potential viewers evaluate ads

  • 50 to 100 participants
  • Overall reaction to each ad
  • And rank ordering of ads
  • Examples of questions:
    • 1. Which ads would you most likely read?
    • 2. Which headlines interests you the most?
    • 3. Which ad convinces you of the product’s quality?
    • 4. Which ad did you like best?
    • 5. Which ad did you find most interesting?
  • Company example
starch data
Starch Data

Used for print Ads

  • Asses what people saw
  • Measures what they remember
  • Used to compare ads
pupil dilation


Stimulus Object







Pupil Dilation

Size of Subjects pupils are measured

  • Action  Dilation
  • Disinterest  Constriction



galvanic skin response
Galvanic Skin Response

Measures sweating

  • GSR responds to:
      • feelings
      • attention
  • may indicate:
      • long-term recall
      • effectiveness
brain wave activity eeg
Brain wave activity (EEG)

Measures brain wave activity

1. Alpha activity is bad

  • Associated with
    • Inactivity, resting & sleeping
  • So: avoid ads with high alpha

2. Hemispheric lateralization

  • Distinguishes between activity in the different hemispheres of the brain
    • Tells you what people are attending to
eye movements
Eye Movements

Measures what is looked at

  • Method
      • Eye camera and advanced electronics
  • Output:
    • Eye movements tell what is seen
    • And what will be…
      • comprehended
      • recalled
broadcast tests
Broadcast Tests
  • Theater tests
    • Product preferences
    • Interest in the commercial
    • Reactions (an adjective checklist)
    • Recall of particular aspects
    • Interest in the brand
    • Continuous (frame-by-frame) reactions
broadcast tests1
Broadcast Tests
  • On-air tests
    • TV programs in specific markets
    • Day-after recall
  • Split Cable studies
    • Ad run in one area, but not another
    • One ad in one area, different ad in the other
    • Day after recall
    • SALES

1. Please look over these pictures and words from a TV commercial.

(Announcer) Remember Jared from Name? Turns out he has inspired a lot of people. (Singer) …You’re still looking good. He’ll show you the way. His name is Jared, and he’ll lead you to Name.

2. Do you remember seeing that commercial on TV?

Yes No Not sure

3. How interested are you in what that TV commercial is trying to tell you or show you about what's being advertised?

Very interested Somewhat interested Not interested 4. How does it make you feel about what's being advertised?

Good OK Bad Not sure

5. Please check any of the following if you feel they describe that commercial.

Amusing Appealing Familiar Fast moving Pointless Seen a lot

  • 4 Basic Types of Ad Research:
    • Formative research
    • Pre tests
    • Pilot tests
    • Post tests
  • Each has it’s own use
    • Use the one appropriate for what you want to know
quote of the day
Quote of the day

Advertising people who ignore research are as dangerous as generals who ignore decodes of enemy signals.

  • David Ogilvy

(Ogilvy & Mather)