Turning your outline into a draft
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Turning Your Outline into a Draft. Part 2. Elements to add when drafting. Topic sentences Concluding sentence Transitions (see page 12 in research packet) Sandwiches when using direct quotes Smiley Face Tricks. Smiley Face Tricks-page 12. At least one semicolon

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Elements to add when drafting
Elements to add when drafting

  • Topic sentences

  • Concluding sentence

  • Transitions (see page 12 in research packet)

  • Sandwiches when using direct quotes

  • Smiley Face Tricks


Smiley face tricks page 12
Smiley Face Tricks-page 12

  • At least one semicolon

  • At least one simile or metaphor

  • At least one appositive (in the middle of a sentence)

  • At least two of the following sentence structures

    • Two adjective beginning

    • Ly beginning

    • Ing beginning

    • Ing ending


Internal documentation
Internal Documentation

  • Resources:

    • Research packet, pages 6 and 7

    • MLA parenthetical references handout

    • Noodlebib bibliography section


Internal documentation1
Internal Documentation

  • the first time you mention a source, try to present as much information about that source within your sentence. However, never “mention” the page number (where there is one)—simply put it in parentheses at the end. Notice that the author’s first and last name are used when he or she is first mentioned.

  • ex: John Jones, professor of history at Yale University explains in his book, Terrorism, that incidents of terrorism in the United States have increased by 3 percent between 1995 and 2000 (232).

  • ex: Sam Smith, researcher for the American Cancer Society, discusses in his New York Times article “Stop Lighting Up” that cigarette smoke is lethal for second-hand smokers (36).


Internal documentation2
Internal Documentation

  • Look at your outline and highlight every FIRST MENTION of a source


Internal documentation3
Internal Documentation

  • later mentions of a source can include the author’s name (last name only) either in the sentence or in the parentheses.

  • ex: Smith also argues that by outlawing smoking in public places, the rate of illness from second hand smoke would be reduced by 33 percent (37).

  • NOTICE: if you mention the author’s name in the sentence, DO NOT put it in parentheses.

  • ex: By outlawing smoking in public places, statistics report the rate of illness from second hand smoke would be reduced by 33 percent (Smith 37).


Internal documentation4
Internal Documentation

  • if there is no author, use a shortened version of the work’s title and page numbers for documentation. See handout for more information.

  • ex: Statistics stated in Time’s article “First Aid is Needed” claim that 350,000 Americans are injured from personal tools each year (45).

  • ex: Researchers claim that 350,000 Americans are injured from personal tools each year (“First” 45).


Internal documentation5
Internal Documentation

  • if using an internet source with no real page numbers, do not put any page numbers in the parentheses.

  • ex: Half of all teen pregnancies would have been preventable with proper education for the females (Smith).

  • ex: Jansen also states that smoking turns one’s lungs into a nasty, brown breeding ground for lung cancer.

  • NOTICE: the author’s name is in the sentence, so it is not in parenthesis; also, there are no page numbers for this source, so there are no page numbers in the parenthesis.


Internal documentation6
Internal Documentation

  • when inserting a direct quotation from the author, the author’s name can come in various places.

  • ex: Smith claims, “The failure is the lack of education; with knowledge, teen pregnancies will be reduced” (34).

  • ex. “The failure is the lack of education; with knowledge, teen pregnancies will be reduced,” says Smith (34).


Internal documentation7
Internal Documentation

  • when inserting a direct quotation from someone other than the author, clearly identify the speaker during the first mention (list first and last name as well as any credentials); for subsequent mentions, you may identify the speaker by last name.

  • Put the letters qtd. in in the parenthesis, followed by the source’s author name and page numbers when appropriate.

  • Don’t use qtd. in for paraphrases.

  • ex: Liz Gordon, professor of Cardiac Science at Harvard University, explains, “People assume the lungs are hurt by smoking. This is true, but it is not the whole truth. The heart is deeply affected by smoking” (qtd. in Smith 38). Furthermore, Gordon realizes this is a message the science field needs to spread to the general public in order to educate smokers and their families (Smith 39).


Internal documentation8
Internal Documentation

  • For other MLA issues not addressed in the research packet, consult the handout from Noodlebib.

  • Note the positions of the quotation marks, parenthesis, and periods. More information on this topic can be found on pages 14 and 15 of the research packet.


Sample paragraph
Sample Paragraph

  • Page 7 in research packet


What now
What now?

  • Using the notes on internal documentation, go through your outline and write the MLA parenthetical reference for each note card in your outline.


The rest of the week
The rest of the week

  • Block day – report to the media center. Work time to type rough drafts.

  • Friday – Typed and printed rough draft due in class AND on turnitin.com.

  • The assignment in turnitin.com is called “Research Paper Rough Draft”