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Operational Amplifiers. EE 174 - Lecture One Ideal Operational Amplifiers. Ideal Operational Amplifiers. Op-amp terminals Circuit ground: Common connection of V+ and V-. Operational Amplifier. Practical op-amp: Essentially, an ideal voltage amplifier

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operational amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers

EE 174 - Lecture One

Ideal Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

ideal operational amplifiers
Ideal Operational Amplifiers
  • Op-amp terminals
  • Circuit ground: Common connection of V+ and V-

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

operational amplifier
Operational Amplifier
  • Practical op-amp: Essentially, an ideal voltage amplifier

( is ”large” and is small), which While operated in its linear region, exhibits a very large open-loop gain (A>0) over relatively “large” range of frequencies.

  • Ideal Op-amp: same definition with “large” changed to and “small” to “zero”.
  • Since

Where

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

fiber optic communication
Fiber optic communication
  • Fiber optic link mainly consist of optical transmitter, channel (medium), and optical receiver.
  • 1- Optical transmitter is a light source (LED or LD)
  • 2- Medium or channel is either atmosphere or fiber medium.

2a- Atmosphere

2b- Fiber medium

  • 3- Optical receiver is a PIN diodes, Avalanche diode.
  • 4- Two port optical component such as filters, isolators, optical amplifier,
  • 5- Simple, accurate, and inexpensive to test,

a- The power.

b- Signal to noise ratio (SNR).

c- Wavelength of each channel.

  • The data rates

commercial: 10 Gb/s

Research: 40 Gb/s

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

analog fiber optic link
Analog Fiber-Optic Link
  • Analog fiber optic link

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

a digital fiber optic communication link
A digital Fiber Optic Communication link
  • Digital fiber optic communication

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

dispersion
Dispersion
  • Fiber optic dispersion

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

sonet transmission rates
SONET Transmission rates

1

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

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1

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

wdm fiber link
WDM Fiber Link
  • 1

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

dual nature of light
Dual nature of light
  • Light possesses two natures, a particle nature and a wave nature.
  • The particle nature of light:

Like all moving particles, light too can exert pressure and cause a wheel to spin (Campton’s experiment). The smallest quality of monochromatic light, known as a photon, is described by the energy E.

Where (joule-second) is Planck’s constant, and f is the frequency of light.

Second energy relation lead to controversial issues

Of

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

the wave nature of light
The wave nature of light
  • Light is electromagnetic radiation that is subject to:
  • Reflection
  • Refraction
  • Diffraction
  • Interference
  • Polarization
  • Fading
  • loss

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

monochromatic wave
Monochromatic wave
  • The light of a single frequency or single color is called monochromatic.
  • Light is described by the Maxwell’s plane wave equation in vacuum.
  • Where is the Laplacian operator, c is the speed of the wave in vacuum, E and H are the electric and magnetic field
  • The intermediate? Relation
  • Where is the dielectric permitivity, is the permeability, P is the electric polarization and M is the magnetic polarization.

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU

flux illuminance and luminance
Flux, Illuminance, and Luminance
  • The

Operational Amplifiers - EE Dept. SJSU