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MOTIVATION Academic Materials for MBA. Compiled by: Gopal Salim 056-7123960. MOTIVATION. Motivation - Meaning. The word ‘Motivation’ is derived from the Latin Term ‘Movere’ which means ‘Move’.

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motivation academic materials for mba

MOTIVATION Academic Materials for MBA

Compiled by:

Gopal Salim

056-7123960

motivation meaning
Motivation - Meaning
  • The word ‘Motivation’ is derived from the Latin Term ‘Movere’ which means ‘Move’.
  • Motivation is “the processes that account for an individual’s INTENSITY, DIRECTION and PERSISTENCE of effort towards attaining a goal” ( Stephen P. Robbins)
  • Motivation means to move. It includes three common characteristics:
  • It concerns with what activates human behavior
  • It involves what directs this behavior towards a particular goal.
  • Motivation concerns how this behavior is sustained or supported.
slide9

Motivation has got three common characteristics:

1. It concerns with what activates human behavior

2. It involves what directs this behavior towards a particular goal

3. Motivation concerns how this behavior is sustained (supported)

motivation process
Motivation Process

Drive/Goal Directed Behavior

Need

Goal

Incentive/Relief

basic characteristics of work motivation
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WORK MOTIVATION
  • Direction of behavior & is psychological
  • Level of effort
  • Level of persistence
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • Dynamic and situational
  • Not easily observed phenomenon
  • Motivation is goal oriented process
  • Motivation is influenced by social and cultural norms
theories of motivation
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  • Theories categorized into two groups.
  • CONTENT THEORIES
    • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    • ERG Theory
    • Two Factor Theory
    • McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory
  • PROCESS THEORIES
    • Expectancy Theory
    • Equity Theory
    • Porter & Lawler Theory
maslow s hierarchy of needs
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
  • People are not merely controlled by mechanical forces (stimuli and reinforcement) or unconscious instinctual impulses of psychoanalysis.
slide14

SELF ACTUALIZATION

ESTEEM

LOVE, AFFECTION & BELONGINGNESS (SOCIAL)

SAFETY NEEDS

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

slide15

SELF ACTUALIZATION

(Personal Growth, realization of potential)

HIGHER LEVEL NEEDS

STATUS ( Titles, symbols,

Promotion etc)

SOCIAL NEEDS ( Formal or informal work

Groups, Teams etc)

SECURITY NEEDS ( Seniority plan, health insurance

employee assistance plan, pension etc)

LOWER LEVEL NEEDS

BASIC NEEDS ( PAY )

erg theory alderfer 1972
ERG THEORY ( Alderfer 1972)

GROWTH

(Intrinsic Desire for Personal Development)

RELATEDNESS

(Interpersonal social relationship)

EXISTENCE

(Survival)

2 erg theory maslow s theory
2.ERG THEORY &MASLOW’S THEORY

GROWTH

External Esteem &

Self Actualization

RELATEDNESS

Social Needs & Esteem Needs

EXISTENCE

(Physiological Needs & Safety Needs)

difference between erg theory and maslow s theory
Difference Between ERG Theory and Maslow’s Theory
  • More than one need may be operative at the same time
  • If the gratification of a higher level need is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower level need increases
  • ERG Theory does not assume that there exists a rigid hierarchy. A person can be working on growth even though existence or related needs are unsatisfied or all three need categories could be operating at the same time
3 herzberg s two factor theory
3.HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
  • According to Herzberg , the factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction.
  • He makes the following contention about satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
contrasting views of satisfaction and dissatisfaction
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

TRADITIONAL VIEW

SATISFACTIONDISSATISFACTION

HERZBERG VIEW

SATISFACTION NO SATISFACTION

NO DISSATISFACTION DISSATISFACTION

contrasting views of satisfaction and dissatisfaction1
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

DISSATISFACTION & DEMOTIVATION

EMPLOYEE NOT DISSATISFIED, BUT NOT MOTIVATED

POSITIVE SATISFACTION & MOTIVATION

major components of herzberg two factor theory
Major Components of Herzberg Two Factor Theory

EXTRINSIC/HYGIENE

FACTORS

INTRINSIC/MOTIVATORS

FACTORS

Achievement

Recognition

Work itself

Responsibility

Advancement

Growth

Company Policy & Admn.

Relationship with supervisor

Working conditions

Personal Life

Status

Security

Supervision etc

slide23

Motivators are associated with long term positive effects in job performance

  • Hygiene factors consistently produced only short term changes in job attitude and performance
  • Satisfiers describe a person’s relationship with what he or she does and it relates to the tasks being performed
  • Dissatisfiers have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which he or she performs the job
slide24

3.

McClelland's Theory

Of

Needs

slide25

McClelland's theory is based on TAT

  • McClelland identified three themes on such TAT stories, with each corresponding to an underlying need that he believes is important for understanding individual behavior.
  • These needs include:
    • Need for Achievement (nAch)
    • Need for Power (nPow)
    • Need for Affiliation (nAff)
nach high n achievers
nAch (High n Achievers)
  • nAch
  • Derive satisfaction from reaching goals
  • Feeling of successful task accomplishment
  • Immediate feedback on performance
  • Moderate risk takers
  • Work independently
high n achievers
High n Achievers
  • Joint Walt Disney in 1996
  • Made turnaround for Disney’s ABC Familychannel
  • Became President of ABC Television in 2004
high n achievers1
High n Achievers
  • Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi
  • CEO of Pepsi
npow high n powerful
nPow (High n Powerful)
  • nPow
  • Derives satisfaction from his or her ability to control others
  • Actual achievement of goal is not very important but the means are of primary importance
  • Derive satisfaction from being in positions of influence and control
naff high n affiliated
nAff (High n Affiliated)
  • nAff
  • Satisfaction from social and interpersonal activities
  • Strong interpersonal ties and to get close to people psychologically
naff high n affiliated1
nAff (High n Affiliated)

Muhammad Yunus : Micro Banking

: Bangladesh

Nelson Mandela : South Africa

assumptions of the theory
Assumptions of the theory
  • Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer job situations with personal responsibility, feedback, moderate risk
  • A high need to achieve does not necessarily leads to being a good manager, especially in large organizations as they are more interested in how well they do personally
  • The needs for affiliation and power tend to be closely related to managerial success. The best managers are high in their need for power and low in their need for affiliation
4 goal setting theory locke latham 1990
4. Goal Setting Theory (Locke & Latham 1990)
  • Challenging goals produce a higher level of output than do the generalized goals
  • More difficult the goal, the higher the level of performance
  • People do well when they get feedback
  • Goal serves as a motivator, because it causes people to compare their present capacity to perform with that required to succeed at the goal
goal setting theory
Goal Setting Theory
  • There are four contingencies in goal setting theory:
  • Goal Commitment
  • Adequate self-efficacy
  • Task characteristics
  • National culture ( North American)
5 equity theory adams
5. EQUITY THEORY (Adams)
  • Employees make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others
  • If an individual feels that his input-output is equal to that of others, a state of equity exists
  • He will perceive the situation as fair
  • If ratio is unequal, the individual experience inequity
referent comparisons used by employees
Referent comparisons used by employees
  • SELF-INSIDE
  • An employee’s experiences in a different position inside his or her current organization
  • SELF-OUTSIDE
  • An employee’s experiences in a situation or position outside his or her current organization
  • OTHER-INSIDE
  • Another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization
  • OTHER-OUTSIDE
  • Another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization
crucial issues in equity theory
Crucial Issues in Equity Theory
  • Employees with short tenure in their current organizations tend to have little information about others
  • Employees with long tenure rely more heavily on co-workers for comparison
  • Upper level employees will make more other-outside comparisons
choice in inequity
Choice in Inequity
  • Change their inputs
  • Change their outcomes
  • Distort perceptions of self
  • Distort perceptions of others
  • Choose a different referent
  • Leave the field
organizational justice
Organizational Justice
  • DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
  • The perceived fairness of the way rewards are distributed among people

2. PROCEDURAL JUSTICE

  • Perceptions of the fairness of the procedures used to determine outcomes

3. INTERACTIONAL JUSTICE

  • The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment used to determine organizational outcomes
6 expectancy theory victor h vroom
6. EXPECTANCY THEORY – Victor H. Vroom

VALENCY X EXPECTANCY

MOTIVATION

ACTION

GOAL ACHIEVEMENT

SATISFACTION

determinants of motivation
Determinants of Motivation
  • EXPECTANCY
  • The belief that one’s efforts will positively influence one’s performance
  • INSTRUMENTALITY
  • An individual’s beliefs regarding the likelihood of being rewarded in accord with his or her own level of performance
  • VALENCE
  • The value a person places on the rewards he or she expects to receive from an organization
  • OTHER DETERMINANTS
  • Skills, abilities, role perceptions, opportunity to perform etc
slide43

INSTRUMENTALLITIES

EXPECTANCY

SECOND LEVEL OUTCOME

OUTCOME 1A

FIRST LEVEL OUTCOME

OUTCOME 1

OUTCOME 1B

MOTIVATIONAL FORCE

OUTCOME 2

OUTCOME 2A

OUTCOME 2B

OUTCOME 2C

key relationships in expectancy theory
Key Relationships in Expectancy Theory

Individual Effort

Individual Performance

Organizational Rewards

Personal Goals

three key relationships
Three Key Relationships
  • EFFORT – PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP
  • PERFORMANCE – REWARD RELATIONSHIP
  • REWARDS – PERSONAL GOALS RELATIONSHIP
performance formula
PERFORMANCE FORMULA
  • Performance of an employee is based on ABILITY, OPPORTUNITY AND MOTIVATION
  • Therefore

PERFORMANCE = f ( A X M X O )

Where A is ability

M is motivation

O is opportunity

performance impact
PERFORMANCE IMPACT

ABILITY

PERFORMANCE

MOTIVATION

OPPORTUNITY

application of motivation theories
Application of Motivation Theories
  • Goal Setting
  • Goal setting is used to motivate staff in organization
  • The use of goal to motivate task accomplishment draws on two primary attributes: (i) The Content of Goal and (ii) Level of Intensity in Working Towards it.
application of motivation theories1
Application of Motivation Theories
  • Current Level of Difficulty
  • Goal should be challenging enough to induce high levels of effort
  • So the managers should take this factor into consideration while setting goals to the employees.

(ii) Level of Intensity in Working Towards Goal

  • There can be three ways in which goals can be set. They are:
  • When goals are assigned by the management
  • Where members are asked to participate in goal setting
  • When members are told to do their best
  • Studies prove that the first two methods are more effective in motivating the people to achieve their targets and goals.
goals
Goals
  • IMPORTANCE OF GOALS
  • Goals guide and direct behavior
  • Goals serve as an organizing function
  • Goals provide benchmarks
  • Goals may define the basis for organizational design.
  • LIMITATIONS OF GOAL SETTING
  • If employees lack skill and ability, they may not be able to achieve the goals
  • When the employees are given complicated task, goal setting fails
goals1
Goals
  • REACTION OF DISSATISFIED EMPLOYEES
  • Job avoidance ( quitting)
  • Work avoidance (absenteeism, arriving late or leaving early)
  • Psychological defenses ( alcohol, drug abuse etc)
  • Constructive protest (complaining)
  • Defiance (Refusing to do what is asked)
  • Aggression (theft or assault)
reward system for high performance
REWARD SYSTEM FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE
  • Reinforcement or reward system is the process of managing behavior or reshape behaviors by having a contingent consequence follows behavior
  • The ability of the reward to motivate individuals or a team of high performance depends on the following factors:
  • Availability of rewards
  • Timeliness of rewards
  • Performance contingency: Linkage between performance and rewards
  • Durability of rewards
  • Equity in providing rewards
  • Visibility of rewards