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American Anthropology

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  1. American Anthropology The Beginning of Anthropology in American and Core concepts

  2. Develop a timeline for emergence of American anthropology Recognize the influence of European scholars on American anthropology Distinguish between early ideas of cultural and biological variation and current understanding of such processes. (Note: represents a course theme) Describe the scientific method and how it is used to develop theories of cultural change and diversity. Learning Objectives

  3. ‘Armchair’ Anthropologists • [Note: As emphasis on scientific methodology grew, both methods and ‘theories’ were challenged] Unlinear Evolutionism

  4. Result of ‘Armchair’ Anthropology = _________ • __________________________________________ • Cultures evolve in a ____________towards an end ________________________________ • Cultural traits have a __________________ Unlinear Evolutionism

  5. Louis Henjry Morgan • Example: Polynesians of the Solomon Islands Unlinear Evolutionism

  6. E. B. Tylor • Checkpoint: What does ‘living fossils’ mean? Unlinear Evolutionism

  7. UnlinearEvolutionism Summary • Positive • Negative

  8. Four-Field Approach • Emphasized different __________ • Focused on demonstrating that _________ ____________________________ Historical Particularism

  9. Historical Particularism • Emphasized that _______________________________ • Cultures should be ____________________________ • Methods of cultural analysis = ____________ • Rejected _______________________ Historical Particularism

  10. Franz Boas -- Father of American Anthropology • Cultures _______________________________ • _____________________________________ • Emphasized _______________ • Checkpoint: How is diffusion defined in cultural anthropology? • ______________________________________ • Example: Subsistence practice Historical Particularism

  11. Historical Particularism Summary • Positive • Negative

  12. Functionalism • Emphasizes the ________________________________ • Challenged both __________________________ • Important scholars: • Malinowski (Father of Ethnography) • Radcliffe-Brown

  13. Functionalism • Malinowski, a Functionalist because of: • _______________________________ • ____________________________________ • _____________________________________ • _________________ • Cultural customs are____________________________

  14. Structural Functionalism • Radcliffe-Brown • Role that _______________________________________ • Theoretical category of _______________________ • Culture & cultural practices ________________, which is maintained by the _____________________________ • Viewed _________________________________________

  15. Functionalism • Functionalism – Still Present in Anthropology • Despite challenges to the general theme, a form of functionalism is still a very active perspective in anthropology • “…there are social & cultural systems and that their elements…are functionally related so that they covary,” (Kottak, 2013, p.65)

  16. Culture viewed ______________________________ • Pulled from both ___________________________________ • ________________ is not automatic • ___________________________________________ • Considered to be part of ________________ anthropology • Scholars: Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead Configurationalism

  17. Geertz • _______________________________ • ____________________________________ • Known for his 1973 Balinese cockfighting essay Interpretive Anthropology

  18. Levi-Strauss • Idea of structuralism evolved over time • ______________________, giving shape to seemingly disparate cultures and creations • Main universal structure = ___________________________ • Used ___________________to emphasis his point • Underlying ________________________ Structuralism

  19. Various Theoretical Perspectives – 20th century

  20. ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ Scientific method

  21. What is a hypothesis? • ___________________ • ___________________ . Scientific method

  22. Scientific method • Hypotheses are subject to _______________ • Must be _________ • _________________ _________________

  23. What is a theory? • ___________________ • Can you think of an example of a theory? . Scientific method

  24. Induction • ___________________ • Deduction • ___________________ Scientific method

  25. Four steps: • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ Scientific method