Fascism Rises in Europe. Section 15.3. Fascism’s Rise in Italy. -Italians were bitter about the results of World War 1 -Rising inflation and unemployment also contributed to widespread social unrest -Italians blamed these problems on their democratic government
-Italians were bitter about the results of World War 1
-Rising inflation and unemployment also contributed to widespread social unrest
-Italians blamed these problems on their democratic government
-Wanted a strong leader who would take action
-Benito Mussolini boldly promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and providing strong leadership
-As conditions worsened, he gained popularity
-King Emmanuel III decided putting Mussolini in charge was best
Why did Mussolini gain popularity?
What was the result of his popularity?
-Mussolini adopts the nickname Il Duce (the leader)
-He outlaws democracy and all parties except the Fascists
-Never achieved the total control experienced by Stalin or Hitler
What was the effect of Mussolini taking control of the government?
-Hitler joined a tiny political group called the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazi for short)
-Adopted the swastika as the party symbol
-After noticing Hitler’s skills as a speaker and political organizer, the party chose Hitler to be their leader
-Hitler plans to lead the Nazis in seizing power
Why did the party choose Hitler to be their leader?
What is the effect of Hitler becoming leaders of the Nazis?
-The Nazi plan to seize power fails
-Hitler is sent to prison for treason
-Hitler writes Mein Kampf, which outlines his goals for Germany
-Calls the Treaty of Versailles an outrage
-Declares that all “non-Aryans” (Jews, Slavs, Gypsies) were inferior
-Believed that Germany should take over other countries
-Hitler was released from prison after 9 months
Why was Hitler put in prison?
What was an effect of Hitler’s prison sentence?
-The Nazi party becomes the largest political party in Germany by 1932
-Hitler promises strong leadership and relief from economic problems
-President Paul von Hindenburg names Hitler chancellor
-Hitler uses his position to eventually take control of the entire country
-He turns Germany into a totalitarian state
Why does the President name Hitler chancellor?
What affect does this appointment have?
-As leader Hitler adopts the nickname The Fuhrer (leader)
-Mistrusts any non-Nazi ideas
-Seeks to control all press, radio, literature, painting etc. by turning them into tools for propaganda
-Burns all books that do not conform to Nazi beliefs in huge bonfires.
Why did Hitler burn books?
What effect would this have?
-Anti-Semitism (Hatred of Jews) was a key part of Nazi ideology
-Nazis used Jews as a scapegoat for all of Germany’s problems
-Widespread hatred of Jews spread throughout Germany
-The Nazis passed laws depriving Jews of most rights
-Hatred of Jews increased
Why did the Nazis pass laws that deprived Jews of their rights?
What effect did these laws have?
-In 1938, Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes and destroyed Jewish buildings. This attack was called Kristallnacht(Night of Broken Glass)
-Signaled the beginning of the process of eliminating Jews from Germany