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SWITCH ON WEBEX. How To Do Things W ith Diagrams September 13, 2012. Barry Smith. How to do things, with diagrams. W iggers Diagram, Cardiac Cycle, Left Ventricle. Two directions of fit. world-to-mind and mind-to-world direction of fit

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how to do things with diagrams
How to do things, with diagrams

Wiggers Diagram, Cardiac Cycle, Left Ventricle

two directions of fit
Two directions of fit
  • world-to-mind and mind-to-world direction of fit
  • what begins as a plan, ends as a record (whose truthmaker – if it is a true record – is: the journey you took)
create an intellectual property right
Create an intellectual property right
  • from original Danish Patent DK92683Cfor Leggo bricks (Legetøjsbyggeelement)
how to do things with diagrams1
How to do things with diagrams

create a real estate parcel

create a country
Create a country

Sykes-Piqyot agreement,

16 May 1916

slide10

Some more examples

musical score

blueprint, building plan

organizational chart

military operations plan

overview
speech acts vs. document acts

speech acts are evanescent

documents endure, and so can be used in multiple ways in succession

documents can tie people together in complex endeavors (often: via diagrams)

the different types of institutional systems to which documents belong

more on time series graphs

Overview
types of speech act
We tell people how things are (assertives)

We try to get them to do things (directives)

We commit ourselves to doing things (commissives)

We bring about changes in the world through utterances (declarations) (“I name this ship ...”)

We express our feelings and attitudes (expressives)

Types of Speech Act
directions of fit
Directions of fit
  • mind-to-world: an assertion is about something in the world
  • world-to-mind: a request is designed to change the world to conform to the mind of the requester
  • automatic mind-to-world-and-world-to-mind: I say “I promise to pay you $1000 dollars” and thereby make it true that I promise to pay you $1000 dollars
the searle thesis
claims and obligations and deontic powers* are brought into existence by the performance of speech acts

(acts of promising, marrying, accusing ... )

The Construction of Social Reality (1989)

* rights, relations of authority, debts, property-relations, permissions, ...

The Searle thesis
speech acts and document acts can create new kinds of entities
such as organizations, rules, prices, debts, standardized transactions

Searle: We make it the case by Declaration that a Y status function exists in a context C(Making the Social World, 2010, p. 13).

Standing declaration: “I declare (by posting this notice in my café) that the price for Kronenbourg demi today will be 10 Belgian Francs”

Speech acts and document acts can create new kinds of entities
one off one person obligations
One-off obligation-creations:

I request that you bring me a beer.

By signing this IOU note I commit myself to paying you $1000 next Tuesday.

One-off, one-person obligations
obligation creations can form networks
Obligation-creations can form networks
  • signatures link to persons and acts of acceptance
  • stamps link to administrative offices
  • alphanumeric IDs link to multiple other documents

Diagram with deontic powers

the line between diagrams and documents and between both of these is not sharp
the line between diagrams and documents and between both of these is not sharp

increasingly, too, we will need to deal also with algorithmically enhanced diagrams / documents

diagrams as continuants
Diagrams as continuants

time 1: blueprint as plan

(world-to-mind direction of fit)

time 2: blueprint as record

of process of building

of product

(mind-to-world direction of fit)

diagrams with deontic powers
Diagrams with deontic powers

chain of commitments

from order

to blueprint creation

to acceptance of blueprint

to process of building in accordance with blueprint

to acceptance of finished building

and also to annul
and also to annul

ΑΚΥΡΟΣ

and can be steered by diagrams
and can be steered by diagrams

e.g. by those sorts of diagrams and nested sub-diagrams we call musical scores

how to do things with diagrams2
How to do things, with diagrams
  • An orchestral musical work (as something that can be rehearsed, performed and reperformed)
    • could not exist without a score
    • could not be rehearsed without scores and subscores
    • could not be performed without (either) scores or rehearsal
how to do things with scores
How to do things with scores
  • the author authors the score, thereby creates a possibility of performance
  • he thereby creates, and at the same time baptizes, the work
  • conductor and orchestra use the score to form a plan (including subplans) and commit themselves to its execution
  • they use the score as a set of instructions to rehearse execution of their plan (develop score-coordinated expertise)
  • they may mark up their copies of the score to add instructions
  • they schedule a concert, thereby committing themselves to a prospective audience to perform that work
  • they perform that work
  • they may mark up their copy of the score to record errors in that performance
directions of fit1
Directions of fit
  • automatic score-to-world-and-world-to-score: Berlioz completes the score and thereby brings into being a work that is precisely in conformance to the score
  • world-to-score: the score tells the world how to shape itself to create a performance that is in conformance with the score
  • score-to-world: the score, when the performance is completed, serves as a record of the performance
the role of shared practice
The role of shared practice

This sort of coordinated activity is impossible without shared expertise, developed

  • through training and individual practice
  • through practice and rehearsal in small group, yielding
  • reusable, recombinable expertise modules
slide40

and elaborately nested subdiagrams

US military operations center in Afghanistan

slide41

Warfighters’ Information Sharing Environment

Intelligence

Fire Support

Targeting

Maneuver &

Blue Force Tracking

Civil-Military Operations

Air Operations

Logistics

military symbology
Military Symbology

Symbols for Military Organizations

Depict functions/capabilities

Depict Roles: Friend, Adversary, Neutral

Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

military symbology1
Military Symbology

Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

military symbology2
Military Symbology

Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

military symbology3
Military Symbology

Buildings, Structures, Vehicles, Formations, Geographic Areas, and People can all be in a Target_Role for a period of time

These symbols designate Targets on a map

A Target_Role is created by way of the targeting process

A Role is a Temporal Property of some entity

Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

military symbology4
Military Symbology

Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

military symbology5
Military Symbology

Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

task organizing
Task Organizing

Task-Organizing — The act of designing an operating force, support staff, or logistic package of specific size and composition to meet a unique task or mission. Characteristics to examine when task-organizing the force include, but are not limited to: training, experience, equipage, sustainability, operating environment, enemy threat, and mobility. (JP 3-05)

Ontological methods are used in the process of Task-Organizing

A Task-Organization is the Output (Product) of Task Organizing

A Task-Organization is a Plan or part of a Plan

A Plan is an Information Content Entity

operational design
Operational Design

Operational Design — The conception and construction of the framework that underpins a campaign or major operation plan and its subsequent execution. See also campaign; major operation. (JP 3-0)

Military Ontologies help planners and operators “see” and understand the relations between Entities and Events in the area of operations.

Military Ontologies are prerequisites of military innovations such as Airborne Operations, Combined Fires and Joint Operations.

Military Ontologies are prerequisites for the creation of effective information systems.

Source: FM 3-0 Operations

military doctrine
Military doctrine

Creates training modules to create expertise modules and operational modules to be turned into operational plans and nested subplans

targeting ontology
Targeting Ontology

www.militaryontology.com

ooda loop
OODA Loop

The Terrain Modeling process is a doctrinally endorsed way of representing (i.e. ontologizing) the Warfighters’ operational environment

Terrain Models represent the entities and events that make up the area of operations

target data
Target Data

Target Report

A Report which contains information used in the Targeting Process.

(FM 3-60 The Targeting Process)

Target Description

A Descriptive Information Content Entity which describes the characteristics of some object that is in a Target Role

(FM 3-60 The Targeting Process) "

Target Number

Designative Information ContentEntity which denotes some object considered for possible engagement or other action

(derived from Field Manual 3-60 The Targeting Process) "

www.militaryontology.com

slide64

Entity

is_a

is_a

is_a

Information Content Entity

Property

Key:

Ontology Elements

Relations

Data Elements

Geospatial Entity

is_a

is_a

Designative Information Content Entity

Physical Property

is_a

is_a

Road Intersection

is_a

has_role

has_property

Physical Location

Geospatial Reference Point

Common Upper Ontology

Data Model Elements

denotes

denotes

denotes

denotes

denotes

String: Amazai and

NawagaiSura Road

Intersection

Lat: 34.40393540678018

Long: 72.50272750854492

TRP: AB 001

WPT: EZ497

MGRS: TF 4679 5792

targeting organizations
Targeting Organizations

Joint Targeting Coordination Board

A group formed by the joint force commander to accomplish broad targeting oversight functions that may include but are not limited to coordinating targeting information, providing targeting guidance and priorities, and refining the joint integrated prioritized target list.

Joint Targeting Steering Group

A group formed by a combatant commander to assist in developing targeting guidance and reconciling competing requests for assets

from multiple joint task forces. (This term and its definition are approved for inclusion in the next edition of JP 1-02.)

www.militaryontology.com

targeting events
Targeting Events

Act of Target Development

An Act Of Planning consisting of the systematic examination of potential targets--and their components, individual targets, and even elements of targets--to determine the necessary type and duration of the action the must be exerted on each target to create an effect that is consistent with the commander's specific objectives (JP 1-02 DoD Dictionary)

Act of Targeting

An Act Of Planning which is the process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate responses to them, considering operational requirements and capabilities (Joint Publication 1-02 DoD Dictionary)

www.militaryontology.com

targets exist because of target roles
Targets exist because of Target Roles

Target Role:

A Role wherein some entity or object is considered for possible engagement or other action.

Area Target:

A target consisting of an area rather than a single point.

Intelligence Target:

A country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed.

www.militaryontology.com

symbols on map overlays create targets
Symbols on map overlays create targets

Buildings, Structures, Vehicles, Formations, Geographic Areas, and People can all be in a Target_Role for a period of time

These symbols designate Targets on a map

A Target_Role is created by way of the targeting process

A Role is a Temporal Property of some entity

Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

target shapes
Target Shapes

www.militaryontology.com

target is a phase sortal
‘Target’ is a phase sortal

Target Role:

A Role wherein some entity or object is considered for possible engagement or other action.

Area Target:

A target consisting of an area rather than a single point.

Intelligence Target:

A country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed.

www.militaryontology.com

targeting is possible because of plans and nested subplans of targeting organizations
Targeting is possible because of plans and nested subplans of targeting organizations

Act of Target Development

An Act Of Planning consisting of the systematic examination of potential targets--and their components, individual targets, and even elements of targets--to determine the necessary type and duration of the action the must be exerted on each target to create an effect that is consistent with the commander's specific objectives (JP 1-02 DoD Dictionary)

Act of Targeting

An Act Of Planning which is the process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate responses to them, considering operational requirements and capabilities (Joint Publication 1-02 DoD Dictionary)

www.militaryontology.com

michael bratman s theory of joint intentional activities jias
Michael Bratman’s theory of Joint Intentional Activities (JIAs)

From Titus Stahl. Beyond Plans and Practices: Law as Collective Intentional Institutions

expanding bratman s theory
Expanding Bratman’s theory
  • through the idea of diagrammatic nesting of
      • plans
      • authorities
      • intentions
      • obligations
      • expertise modules
      • cf. Scott Shapiro, “Massively Shared Agency”, in M. Vargas and G. Yaffe, eds., Rational and Social Agency: Essays on the Philosophy of Michael Bratman(New York: Oxford University Press, in press)