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Chapter 16
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  1. Chapter 16 First Aid

  2. 16:1 Providing First Aid • Immediate care given to the victim of an accident or illness to minimize the effect of injury or illness until experts can take over • Reasons for providing correct first aid

  3. Basic Principles of Providing First Aid • Remain calm and avoid panic • Evaluate situation thoroughly • Have a reason for anything you do • Treatment you provide will vary depending on type of injury or illness, environment, others present, equipment or supplies on hand, and availability of medical help

  4. First Steps • Recognize that an emergency exists • Use all senses to detect problems • Sometimes signs of emergency are obvious and at other times they are less obvious

  5. Next Steps • Check the scene and make sure it is safe to approach • What to observe • If not safe, call for medical help • If safe, approach the victim • Call emergency medical services (EMS) as soon as possible (continues)

  6. Next Steps(continued) • If possible, obtain the victim’s permission before providing any care • Triage if necessary • Check for other injuries • Obtain as much information as possible before you proceed

  7. General Principles • Obtain qualified help • Avoid any unnecessary movement of the victim • Reassure the victim • Use a confident, calm attitude to help relieve victim’s anxiety • Avoid giving the victim anything to eat or drink (continues)

  8. General Principles(continued) • Protect the victim from cold or chilling, but avoid overheating • Work quickly in an organized and efficient manner • Do not make a diagnosis or discuss condition with observers at scene (continues)

  9. General Principles(continued) • Maintain confidentiality and protect the victim’s right to privacy while providing treatment • Make every attempt to avoid further injury or harm • Provide only the treatment you are qualified to provide

  10. CPR

  11. 16:2 Performing CPR • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): • Cardio: the heart • Pulmonary: the lungs • Resuscitation: to remove from apparent death or unconsciousness • When performing CPR, you breathe for the patient and circulate blood (continues)

  12. Performing CPR(continued) • Purpose: keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital body organs • Performed until the heart and lungs start working again or until medical help is available • Clinical versus biological death (continues)

  13. Performing CPR(continued) • ABCDs of CPR • A stands for airway • B stands for breathing • C stands for circulation • D stands for defibrillation (continues)

  14. Performing CPR(continued) • Evaluate victim’s condition before starting CPR: • Check if patient is conscious • If unconscious, check for breathing • If not breathing, place victim on back • Open the airway by using the head-tilt/chin lift or jaw-thrust maneuver (continues)

  15. Performing CPR(continued) • Look for chest movement • Listen for breathing • Feel for movement of air from the nose or mouth • If not breathing, give two breaths • Make sure breaths are effective • Then check the carotid pulse (continues)

  16. Performing CPR(continued) • Correct hand placement is needed before performing chest compressions • Various methods of CPR used • One-person adult rescue for adult • 30 compressions followed by 2 ventilations (30:2 ratio) (continues)

  17. Performing CPR(continued) • Two-person adult rescue for adult • 30 compressions by one rescuer followed with2 ventilations by the second rescuer (30:2 ratio) • CPR for infants (birth to one year) • 30 compressions followed by 2 ventilations for one rescuer (30:2 ratio) • 15 compressions followed by 2 ventilations for two rescuers (15:2 ratio) (continues)

  18. Performing CPR(continued) • CPR for children (1 year to puberty) • 30 compressions followed by 2 ventilations for one rescuer (30:2 ratio) • 15 compressions followed by 2 ventilations for two rescuers (15:2 ratio) • CPR for choking victims • Reasons for stopping CPR

  19. STROKE– Act FAST • F • Face-Ask the person to smile. Look to see if it's uneven • A= • Arms-Ask the person to raise both arms.Check if one arm is weak • S= • Speak-Ask the person to speak.Listen for slurring • T= • Time-Call 911 at the first sign of stroke.

  20. Providing First Aid for Bleeding and Wound

  21. 16:3 Providing First Aid for Bleeding and Wounds • Wound is an injury to soft tissues • Open: break in skin or mucous membranes • Closed: no break in skin or mucous membranes, but injury occurs to underlying tissues • Wounds can result in bleeding, infection, and/or tetanus

  22. Classifications of Open Wounds • Abrasion • Skin is scraped off • Incision • Cut caused by a sharp object- knife, razor , blade

  23. Classification of Wounds • Laceration • Cut with tearing of tissue by a sharp object • Puncture • Cut caused by a pointed object

  24. Classifications of Open Wounds • Avulsion • Tissue is torn or separated from the victims body • Amputation • Body part is cut off and separated from the body

  25. Controlling Bleeding • First priority because victim can bleed to death quickly • Bleeding can come from arteries, veins, or capillaries • Observe standard precautions (continues)

  26. Controlling Bleeding(continued) • Direct pressure • Pressure applied with gauze- use a clean cloth if sterile gauze not available • Elevation • Above the level of the heart- gravity helps to stop bleeding • Pressure bandages • Direct pressure and elevation are used • Pressure on pressure points • Main blood supply to the affected area helps minimize blood loss

  27. Controlling Bleeding • Do not disturb clots • Clots are a natural defense in the bodies attempt to stop bleeding • Do not remove dressings • May result in additional bleeding • Do not clean wound • May also lead to further bleeding

  28. Pressure Point for Hemorrhage

  29. Minor Wounds • First priority— • prevention of infection • Wash your hands thoroughly before caringfor wound • Put on gloves • Wash the wound with soap and water • Rinse the wound • Use sterile supplies

  30. Signs of Infection • Swelling • Heat • Redness • Pain • Fever • Pus • Red streaks • Seek prompt medical care if any of the above occur

  31. Tetanus • Tetanus bacteria can easily enter an open wound • Tetanus is a serious illness caused by Clostridium bacteria • The infection causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all over the body. It can lead to "locking" of the jaw. This makes it impossible to open your mouth or swallow. Tetanus is a medical emergency. You need to get treatment in a hospital • Most common in puncture wounds • Assess for last tetanus shot • Serious illness • Get tetanus shot or booster as needed

  32. Objects Embedded in Wound • Examples such as splinters, pieces of glass, or small stones • If superficial, gently remove • Objects embedded in tissues should be left and removed by physician

  33. Closed Wounds • Can occur anywhere on body • If bruise, apply cold application to reduce swelling • Observe for signs of internal bleeding • Get medical help • Check breathing and treat for shock • Avoid unnecessary movement • No food or fluids

  34. What should you do? • You are slicing carrots and cut off the end of your finger---- What should you do??????

  35. What Should You Do? • You are watching TV with your parents. Suddenly your father c/o • Severe chest pain radiating down his left arm • Shortness of breath • Lips are cyanotic • Skin is diaphoretic • What should you do?


  37. 16:4 Providing First Aid for Shock • Also called hypoperfusion • Can exist with any injury or illness • Shock: clinical set of signs and symptoms that are associated with an inadequate supply of blood to body organs, especially brain and heart • Causes of shock • Can you name some???

  38. Types of Shock • See Table 16-1 in text • Anaphylactic • Allergic reactions causing histamine release and vasodilatation • Cardiogenic • Heart can not pump • Hemorrhagic • Excessive blood loss • Respiratory • Gas exchange is altered (continues)

  39. Types of Shock • Psychogenic • Severe emotional distress- anger, fear, grief cause dilation of blood vessels • Septic • Infections or poisoning causing severe vasodilatation • Metabolic • Causing changes in normal balance or homeostasis of the body • Loss of fluids from extreme vomiting, diarrhea, and heat • Neurogenic • NS can not control the size of blood vessels • Injury and/or trauma to the spinal cord

  40. Signs and Symptoms of Shock • Skin is pale or bluish-gray and cool or cold to the touch • Diaphoresis • Rapid and weak pulse • Respirations rapid, shallow, and may be irregular • Blood pressure very low or unobtainable (continues)

  41. Signs and Symptoms of Shock(continued) • General weakness • Anxiety and extreme restlessness • Excessive thirst • Nausea and/or vomiting • Blurred vision or changes in appearance of eyes

  42. Treatment for Shock • Goals of treatment- Shock states are life threatening • SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION STAT • Improve circulation—especially – to the heart and brain • Provide oxygen • Maintain body temperature • *****Reduce effects of or eliminate the cause

  43. Shock • Positioning of victim • Best position is supine with legs elevated 12 inches • The position for treating shock must be based on the patients injuries • Maintain body temperature • cover the victim with blankets to prevent chilling and exposure to cold– avoid overheating the victim • Avoid food or drink • DO NOT GIVE anything by mouth • Other principles of care

  44. First Aid for Shock • Other principles of care- • Standard precautions if available! • Check the scene • Move victim only if absolutely necessary • CALL 911 • Provide care to the victim • Control bleeding • Observe for signs of shock

  45. First Aid for Shock • Try to reduce or eliminate the cause • Control bleeding by applying pressure to sites • Provide O2 if possible • Attempt to ease the pain through position changes and comfort measures • Give emotional support

  46. Poisoning

  47. 16:5 Providing First Aid for Poisoning • Can happen to anyone • Poison: any substance that causes a harmful reaction to the outside or inside of the body • Immediate action is needed • First aid varies depending on type of poison, injury involved, and the method of contact

  48. Ways Poisoning Occurs • Ingesting various substances • Inhaling poisonous gases • Injecting substances • Contacting the skin with poison

  49. First Aid for Poisoning • If poison has been swallowed • Call poison control center (PCC) or go to ER immediately • Save the label or container • Save a same of vomitus if patient happens to vomit • Methods to induce vomiting- caution– must be told to do so • DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING on a unconscious victim

  50. First Aid for Poisoning Victim • If poisoning by inhalation of gases • If entering area- take deep breath- try to hold breath while rescuing patient • Remove victim from the area • Check for adequate breathing • Provide artificial respiration if necessary • Call for help--- 911 • If poisoning by contact with skin • Wash area with large amounts of water 15-20 min • Will help to dilute the substance • Remove any contaminated clothing • Call Dr or seek medical attention ASAP or PCC