slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ADOLF HITLER SPEAKING OVER THE RADIO (MAY 9, 1934) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
ADOLF HITLER SPEAKING OVER THE RADIO (MAY 9, 1934)

play fullscreen
1 / 44
Download Presentation

ADOLF HITLER SPEAKING OVER THE RADIO (MAY 9, 1934) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

jabir
131 Views
Download Presentation

ADOLF HITLER SPEAKING OVER THE RADIO (MAY 9, 1934)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. WORLD WAR II IDENTIFY THE ORIGINS, MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS, AND THE DOMESTIC IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II, ESPECIALLY THE GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. WHAT WERE THE ORIGINS, MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS, AND THE DOMESTIC IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II? ADOLF HITLER SPEAKING OVER THE RADIO (MAY 9, 1934)

  2. NATIONALISM GRIPS EUROPE AND ASIA • FAILURES OF WORLD WAR I PEACE SETTLEMENT • TREATY OF VERSAILLES CAUSES ANGER AND RESENTMENT IN EUROPE • GERMANY RESENTS BLAME FOR WAR AND LOSS OF BORDER TERRITORIES • RUSSIA RESENTS LOSS OF LANDS USED TO CREATE OTHER NATIONS • NEW DEMOCRACIES FLOUNDER UNDER SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS • RISE OF DICTATORS DRIVEN BY NATIONALISM AND DESIRE FOR MORE TERRITORY

  3. JOSEPH STALIN TRANSFORMS SOVIET UNION • 1922 LENIN ESTABLISHES SOVIET UNION • 1924 JOSEPH STALIN TAKES OVER: • - REPLACES PRIVATE FARMS WITH COLLECTIVES • - CREATES SECOND LARGEST INDUSTRIAL • POWER • - FAMINES KILL MILLIONS • - PURGES ANYONE WHO THREATENS HIS • POWER WITH 8–13 MILLION KILLED • • TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENT EXERTS ALMOST COMPLETE CONTROL OVER PEOPLE

  4. RISE OF FASCISM IN ITALY • UNEMPLOYMENT AND INFLATION LEAD TO BITTER STRIKES • MIDDLE AND UPPER CLASSES WANT STRONGER LEADERS • FASCISM STRESSES NATIONALISM AND NEEDS OF STATE ABOVE INDIVIDUAL • BENITO MUSSOLINI PLAYS ON FEARS OF ECONOMIC COLLAPSE AND COMMUNISM • SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, POLICE, AND ARMY • 1922 APPOINTED HEAD OF GOVERNMENT AND ESTABLISHES TOTALITARIAN STATE

  5. NAZIS TAKE OVER GERMANY • • ADOLF HITLER LEADER OF NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS’ PARTY • • MEIN KAMPF—BASIC BELIEFS OF NAZISM BASED ON EXTREME NATIONALISM • WANTS TO UNITE GERMAN-SPEAKING PEOPLE AND ENFORCE RACIAL “PURIFICATION” • 1932 MILLIONS UNEMPLOYED • MANY MEN JOIN HITLER’S PRIVATE ARMY • NAZIS BECOME STRONGEST POLITICAL PARTY • HITLER NAMED CHANCELLOR • DISMANTLES DEMOCRATIC WEIMAR REPUBLIC AND ESTABLISHES THIRD REICH

  6. MILITARISTS GAIN CONTROL IN JAPAN • 1931 NATIONALIST MILITARY LEADERS SEIZE MANCHURIA • LEAGUE OF NATIONS CONDEMNS ACTION AND JAPAN QUITS LEAGUE • MILITARISTS TAKE CONTROL OF JAPANESE GOVERNMENT • AGGRESSION IN EUROPE AND AFRICA • 1933 HITLER QUITS LEAGUE OF NATIONS • - 1935 BEGINS MILITARY BUILDUP • - SENDS TROOPS INTO RHINELAND • - LEAGUE OF NATIONS DOES NOTHING TO • STOP HIM • 1935 LEAGUE OF NATIONS FAILS TO STOP MUSSOLINI’S INVASION OF ETHIOPIA

  7. UNITED STATES RESPONDS CAUTIOUSLY • AMERICANS CLING TO ISOLATIONISM • PUBLIC IS OUTRAGED AT PROFITS OF BANKS AND ARMS DEALERS DURING WWI • AMERICANS BECOME ISOLATIONISTS AND FDR BACKS AWAY FROM FOREIGN POLICY • 1935 NEUTRALITY ACTS TRY TO KEEP UNITED STATES OUT OF FUTURE WARS • - OUTLAWS ARMS SALES AND LOANS TO • NATIONS AT WAR • NEUTRALITY BREAKS DOWN • 1937 JAPAN LAUNCHES NEW ATTACK ON CHINA AND FDR SENDS AID TO CHINA • FDR WANTS TO ISOLATE AGGRESSOR NATIONS TO STOP WAR

  8. AUSTRIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA FALL • UNION WITH AUSTRIA • MAJORITY OF AUSTRIANS ARE GERMAN AND FAVOR UNIFICATION WITH GERMANY • 1938 GERMAN TROOPS MARCH INTO AUSTRIA UNOPPOSED TO COMPLETE UNION • UNITED STATES AND REST OF WORLD DO NOTHING TO STOP GERMANY • BARGAINING FOR SUDETENLAND • THREE MILLION GERMAN-SPEAKERS IN SUDETENLAND • HITLER CLAIMS CZECHS ABUSE SUDETEN GERMANS AND • MASSES TROOPS ON BORDER • 1938 PRIME MINISTERS DALADIER (FRANCE) AND NEVILLE • CHAMBERLAIN(BRITAIN) MEET WITH HITLER • SIGN MUNICH AGREEMENT AND HAND SUDETENLAND OVER • TO GERMANY

  9. GERMAN OFFENSIVE BEGINS • SOVIET UNION DECLARES NEUTRALITY • MARCH 1939 GERMAN TROOPS OCCUPY REST OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA • HITLER CHARGES POLISH MISTREAT GERMANS IN POLAND • MANY THINK HITLER’S BLUFFING • INVADING POLAND WOULD BRING TWO-FRONT WAR • STALIN AND HITLER SIGN NONAGGRESSION PACT—WILL NOT ATTACK EACH OTHER • STALIN AND HITLER SIGN A SECOND SECRET PACT AGREEING TO DIVIDE POLAND BETWEEN THEM

  10. BLITZKRIEG IN POLAND • SEPTEMBER 1939 HITLER OVERRUNS POLAND USING BLITZKRIEG OR LIGHTNING WAR • GERMANY ANNEXES WESTERN POLAND • RUSSIA ATTACKS AND ANNEXES EAST POLAND • FRANCE AND BRITAIN DECLARE WAR ON GERMANY • WORLD WAR II BEGINS • PHONY WAR • FRENCH AND BRITISH SOLDIERS ON MAGINOT LINE FACE GERMANS IN SITZKRIEG • STALIN ANNEXES ESTONIA, LATVIA, LITHUANIA, AND DEFEATS FINLAND • 1940 HITLER INVADES DENMARK, NORWAY, AND THE LOW COUNTRIES

  11. FRANCE AND BRITAIN FIGHT ON • FALL OF FRANCE • GERMAN ARMY GOES THROUGH ARDENNES BYPASSING FRENCH AND BRITISH • BRITISH TRAPPED AT DUNKIRK ARE FERRIED TO SAFETY • 1940 ITALY INVADES FRANCE FROM SOUTH AND GERMANS APPROACH PARIS • FRANCE FALLS AND GERMANS OCCUPY NORTHERN FRANCE • NAZI PUPPET GOVERNMENT SET UP IN SOUTHERN FRANCE • GENERAL CHARLES DE GAULLE SETS UP GOVERNMENT-IN-EXILE IN BRITAIN

  12. BATTLE OF BRITAIN • SUMMER 1940 GERMANY PREPARES TO INVADE BRITAIN • BATTLE OF BRITAIN—GERMAN PLANES BOMB BRITISH TARGETS • BRITAIN USES RADAR TO TRACK AND SHOOT DOWN GERMAN PLANES • HITLER CALLS OFF INVASION OF BRITAIN • GERMANS AND BRITISH CONTINUE TO BOMB EACH OTHER’S CITIES

  13. PERSECUTION BEGINS • JEWS TARGETED • EUROPE HAS LONG HISTORY OF ANTI-SEMITISM • GERMANS BELIEVE HITLER’S CLAIMS AND BLAME JEWS FOR PROBLEMS • NAZIS TAKE AWAY CITIZENSHIP, JOBS, PROPERTY, AND REQUIRE STAR OF DAVID • • HOLOCAUST—MURDER OF 11 MILLION PEOPLE MORE THAN HALF ARE JEWS • KRISTALLNACHT • • KRISTALLNACHT—NAZIS ATTACK JEWISH HOMES, BUSINESSES, AND SYNAGOGUES • ABOUT 100 JEWS KILLED, HUNDREDS INJURED, AND 30,000 ARRESTED

  14. FLOOD OF JEWISH REFUGEES • 1938 NAZIS TRY TO SPEED UP JEWISH EMIGRATION • FRANCE HAS 40,000 REFUGEES AND BRITAIN 80,000 WITH BOTH REFUSING MORE • UNITED STATES TAKES 100,000 • AMERICANS FEAR STRAIN ON ECONOMY • PLIGHT OF THE ST. LOUIS • COAST GUARD PREVENTS PASSENGERS ON ST. LOUIS FROM DISEMBARKING • SHIP FORCED TO RETURN TO EUROPE WITH MOST PASSENGERS KILLED IN HOLOCAUST

  15. HITLER’S “FINAL SOLUTION” CONDEMNED • HITLER’S FINAL SOLUTION—SLAVERY AND GENOCIDE OF “INFERIOR” GROUPS • GENOCIDE—DELIBERATE AND SYSTEMATIC KILLING OF AN ENTIRE POPULATION • TARGET JEWS, GYPSIES, FREEMASONS, JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES, AND UNFIT GERMANS • NAZI DEATH SQUADS ROUND UP JEWS AND SHOOT THEM • FORCED RELOCATION • JEWS FORCED INTO GHETTOS OR SEGREGATED AREAS IN CITIES • SOME FORM RESISTANCE MOVEMENTS WHILE OTHERS MAINTAIN JEWISH CULTURE

  16. CONCENTRATION CAMPS • MANY JEWS TAKEN TO CONCENTRATION CAMPS OR LABOR CAMPS • CAMPS ORIGINALLY PRISONS TO WAREHOUSE “UNDESIRABLES” • PRISONERS CRAMMED INTO WOODEN BARRACKS AND GIVEN LITTLE FOOD • WORK DAWN TO DUSK 7 DAYS PER WEEK • THOSE TOO WEAK TO WORK ARE KILLED • MASS EXTERMINATIONS • GERMANS BUILD DEATH CAMPS WITH GAS CHAMBERS USED TO • KILL THOUSANDS • ON ARRIVAL SS DOCTORS SEPARATE THOSE WHO CAN WORK • THOSE WHO CAN’T WORK IMMEDIATELY KILLED IN GAS • CHAMBERS • AT FIRST BODIES BURIED IN PITS LATER CREMATED TO COVER • UP EVIDENCE • SOME ARE SHOT, HANGED, POISONED, OR DIE FROM • EXPERIMENTS

  17. SURVIVORS • ABOUT 6 MILLION JEWS KILLED IN DEATH CAMPS AND MASSACRES • SOME ESCAPE MANY WITH HELP FROM ORDINARY PEOPLE • SOME SURVIVE CONCENTRATION CAMPS • - SURVIVORS FOREVER CHANGED BY • EXPERIENCE

  18. UNITED STATES MUSTERS ITS FORCES • MOVING CAUTIOUSLY AWAY FROM NEUTRALITY • FDR PERSUADES CONGRESS TO PASS “CASH-AND-CARRY” PROVISION • ARGUES WILL HELP FRANCE AND BRITAIN DEFEAT HITLER • KEEP UNITED STATES OUT OF WAR • AXIS THREAT • FDR TRIES TO PROVIDE BRITAIN “ALL AID SHORT OF WAR” • GERMANY, JAPAN, AND ITALY SIGN TRIPARTITE PACT AND MUTUAL DEFENSE TREATY • - BECOME KNOWN AS AXIS POWERS • PACT AIMED AT KEEPING UNITED STATES OUT OF WAR BY FORCING FIGHT ON TWO FRONTS

  19. BUILDING UNITED STATES DEFENSES • NAZI VICTORIES IN 1940 LEAD TO INCREASED UNITED STATES DEFENSE SPENDING • FIRST PEACETIME DRAFT ENACTED—SELECTIVE TRAINING AND SERVICE ACT: • - DRAFTEES TO SERVE FOR 1 YEAR IN • WESTERN HEMISPHERE ONLY • ROOSEVELT RUNS FOR A THIRD TERM • FDR BREAKS TWO-TERM TRADITION AND RUNS FOR REELECTION • REPUBLICAN WENDELL WILLKIE HAS SIMILAR VIEWS ON WAR • FDR REELECTED WITH 55% OF VOTES

  20. “GREAT ARSENAL OF DEMOCRACY” • LEND-LEASE PLAN • FDR TELLS NATION IF BRITAIN FALLS AXIS POWERS FREE TO CONQUER WORLD • - UNITED STATES MUST BECOME “ARSENAL OF • DEMOCRACY” • BY LATE 1940 BRITAIN HAS NO MORE CASH TO BUY UNITED STATES ARMS • 1941 LEND-LEASE ACT—UNITED STATES TO LEND OR LEASE SUPPLIES FOR DEFENSE • SUPPORTING STALIN • 1941 HITLER BREAKS PACT WITH STALIN AND INVADES SOVIET UNION • ROOSEVELT SENDS LEND-LEASE SUPPLIES TO SOVIET UNION

  21. FDR PLANS FOR WAR • ATLANTIC CHARTER • FDR’S PROPOSAL TO EXTEND THE TERM OF DRAFTEES PASSES HOUSE BY ONE VOTE • FDR AND CHURCHILL ISSUE ATLANTICCHARTER—JOINT DECLARATION OF WAR AIMS • CHARTER IS BASIS OF “A DECLARATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS” OR ALLIES • • ALLIES—NATIONS THAT FIGHT AXIS POWERS • 26 NATIONS SIGN DECLARATION • SHOOT ON SIGHT • GERMANS FIRE ON UNITED STATES SHIP AND FDR ORDERS NAVY TO SHOOT U-BOATS ON SIGHT • U-BOAT ATTACKS LEAD SENATE TO REPEAL BAN ON ARMING MERCHANT SHIPS

  22. JAPAN ATTACKS THE UNITED STATES • JAPAN’S AMBITIONS IN THE PACIFIC • • TOJO—CHIEF OF STAFF OF ARMY THAT INVADES CHINA AND PRIME MINISTER • JAPAN SEIZES FRENCH BASES IN INDOCHINA • UNITED STATES CUTS OFF TRADE • JAPAN NEEDS OIL FROM UNITED STATES OR MUST TAKE DUTCH EAST INDIES OIL FIELDS • PEACE TALKS ARE QUESTIONED • 1941 UNITED STATES BREAKS JAPANESE CODES AND LEARNS JAPAN PLANNING TO ATTACK • PEACE TALKS WITH JAPAN LAST ABOUT ONE MONTH • DECEMBER 6 JAPANESE ENVOY INSTRUCTED TO REJECT ALL UNITED STATES PROPOSALS

  23. ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR • DECEMBER 7 1941 JAPANESE ATTACK PEARL HARBOR • 2,403 AMERICANS KILLED AND 1,178 WOUNDED • OVER 300 AIRCRAFT AND 21 SHIPS DESTROYED OR DAMAGED • REACTION TO PEARL HARBOR • CONGRESS APPROVES FDR’S REQUEST FOR DECLARATION OF WAR AGAINST JAPAN • GERMANY AND ITALY DECLARE WAR ON UNITED STATES • UNITED STATES UNPREPARED TO FIGHT ON TWO FRONTS

  24. AMERICANS JOIN WAR EFFORT • EXPANDING THE MILITARY • AFTER PEARL HARBOR FIVE MILLION MEN VOLUNTEER FOR MILITARY SERVICE • TEN MILLION MORE DRAFTED TO MEET NEEDS OF TWO-FRONT WAR • DRAMATIC CONTRIBUTIONS • 300,000 MEXICAN AMERICANS JOIN ARMED • FORCES • ONE MILLION AFRICAN AMERICANS SERVE, LIVE, • AND WORK IN SEGREGATED UNITS • 13,000 CHINESE AMERICANS AND 33,000 • JAPANESE AMERICANS SERVE • 25,000 NATIVE AMERICANS ENLIST

  25. PRODUCTION MIRACLE • INDUSTRIAL RESPONSE • FACTORIES CONVERT FROM CIVILIAN TO WAR PRODUCTION • SHIPYARDS AND DEFENSE PLANTS EXPAND WITH NEW ONES BUILT • PRODUCE SHIPS AND ARMS RAPIDLY • - USE PREFABRICATED PARTS • - PEOPLE WORK AT RECORD SPEEDS • LABOR’S CONTRIBUTION • NEARLY 18 MILLION WORKERS IN WAR INDUSTRIES 6 • MILLION ARE WOMEN • OVER 2 MILLION MINORITIES HIRED BUT FACE STRONG • DISCRIMINATION AT FIRST • FDR EXECUTIVE ORDER FORBIDS DISCRIMINATION

  26. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TAKES CONTROL ECONOMIC CONTROLS • OFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATION (OPA) FREEZES PRICES AND FIGHTS INFLATION • HIGHER TAXES AND PURCHASE OF WAR BONDS LOWER DEMAND FOR SCARCE GOODS • WAR PRODUCTION BOARD (WPB)SAYS WHICH COMPANIES CONVERT PRODUCTION - ALLOCATES RAW MATERIALS - ORGANIZES COLLECTION OF RECYCLABLE MATERIALS RATIONING • RATIONING—FIXED ALLOTMENTS OF GOODS NEEDED BY MILITARY

  27. UNITED STATES AND BRITAIN JOIN FORCES • WAR PLANS • CHURCHILL CONVINCES FDR TO STRIKE FIRST AGAINST HITLER • BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC • HITLER ORDERS SUBMARINE ATTACKS AGAINST SUPPLY SHIPS TO BRITAIN • - WOLF PACKS DESTROY HUNDREDS OF • SHIPS IN 1942 • ALLIES ORGANIZE CONVOYS OF CARGO SHIPS WITH ESCORT: • - DESTROYERS WITH SONAR AND PLANES • WITH RADAR • CONSTRUCTION OF LIBERTY SHIPS (CARGO CARRIERS) SPEEDS UP

  28. EASTERN FRONT AND MEDITERRANEAN • BATTLE OF STALINGRAD • HITLER WANTS TO CAPTURE CAUCASUS OIL FIELDS AND DESTROY STALINGRAD • SOVIETS DEFEAT GERMANS IN BITTER WINTER CAMPAIGN • - OVER 230,000 GERMANS AND 1,100,000 • SOVIETS DIE • BATTLE A TURNING POINT • SOVIET ARMY BEGINS TO MOVE TOWARDS GERMANY • NORTH AFRICA • GENERAL DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER COMMANDS INVASION OF NORTH AFRICA • AFRIKA KORPS LED BY GENERAL ERWIN ROMMEL SURRENDERS MAY 1943

  29. ITALIAN CAMPAIGN • ALLIES DECIDE TO ACCEPT ONLY UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER FROM AXIS • SUMMER 1943 CAPTURE SICILY AND MUSSOLINI FORCED TO RESIGN • 1944 ALLIES WIN “BLOODY ANZIO” BUT GERMANS CONTINUE STRONG RESISTANCE • HEROES IN COMBAT • AFRICAN AMERICANS —TUSKEGEE AIRMEN—HIGHLY DECORATED • MEXICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS WIN MANY AWARDS • JAPANESE-AMERICAN UNIT MOST DECORATED UNIT IN UNITED STATES HISTORY

  30. ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE • D-DAY • ALLIES SET UP PHANTOM ARMY AND SEND FAKE RADIO MESSAGES TO FOOL GERMANS • EISENHOWER DIRECTS ALLIED INVASION OF NORMANDY ON D-DAY JUNE 6, 1944 • ALLIES GAIN GROUND • GENERAL OMAR BRADLEY BOMBS TO CREATE GAP IN ENEMY DEFENSE LINE • GENERAL GEORGE PATTON LEADS THIRD ARMY AND REACHS PARIS IN AUGUST • FDR REELECTED FOR 4TH TERM WITH RUNNING MATE HARRY S. TRUMAN

  31. BATTLE OF THE BULGE • OCTOBER 1944 ALLIES CAPTURE FIRST GERMAN TOWN AACHEN • DECEMBER GERMAN TANK DIVISIONS DRIVE 60 MILES INTO ALLIED AREA • • BATTLE OF THEBULGE—GERMANS PUSH BACK BUT HAVE IRREPLACEABLE LOSSES • LIBERATION OF THE DEATH CAMPS • ALLIES IN GERMANY AND SOVIETS IN POLAND LIBERATE CONCENTRATION CAMPS • - FIND STARVING PRISONERS, CORPSES, • AND EVIDENCE OF KILLING

  32. UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER • APRIL 1945 SOVIET ARMY STORMS BERLIN AND HITLER COMMITS SUICIDE • EISENHOWER ACCEPTS UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER OF GERMAN REICH • MAY 8, 1945 V-E DAY: VICTORY IN EUROPE DAY • ROOSEVELT’S DEATH • FDR DIES APRIL 12, 1945 • VICE PRESIDENT HARRY S. TRUMAN BECOMES PRESIDENT

  33. ALLIES STEM THE JAPANESE TIDE • JAPANESE ADVANCES • IN FIRST SIX MONTHS AFTER PEARL HARBOR JAPAN CONQUERS AN EMPIRE • GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR LEADS ALLIED FORCES IN PHILIPPINES • MARCH 1942 UNITED STATES AND FILIPINO TROOPS TRAPPED ON BATAAN PENINSULA • FDR ORDERS MACARTHUR TO LEAVE BUT THOUSANDS OF TROOPS REMAIN • DOOLITTLE’S RAID • APRIL 1942 LT COL JAMES DOOLITTLE LEADS BOMBER RAID ON TOKYO

  34. BATTLE OF CORAL SEA • MAY 1942 UNITED STATES AND AUSTRALIAN SOLDIERS STOP JAPANESE DRIVE TO AUSTRALIA • FOR FIRST TIME SINCE PEARL HARBOR A JAPANESE INVASION TURNED BACK • BATTLE OF MIDWAY • ADMIRAL CHESTER NIMITZ COMMANDS UNITED STATES NAVAL FORCES IN PACIFIC • ALLIES BREAK JAPANESE CODE, WIN BATTLE OF MIDWAY, AND STOP JAPAN AGAIN • ALLIES ADVANCE ISLAND BY ISLAND TO JAPAN

  35. ALLIES GO ON THE OFFENSIVE • ALLIED OFFENSIVE • ALLIED OFFENSIVE BEGINS AUGUST 1942 ON GUADALCANAL • OCTOBER 1944 ALLIES CONVERGE ON LEYTE ISLAND IN PHILIPPINES • - RETURN OF GENERAL MACARTHUR • JAPANESE DEFENSE • JAPAN USES KAMIKAZE ATTACK—PILOTS CRASH BOMB-LADEN PLANES INTO SHIPS • BATTLE OF LEYTE GULF IS A DISASTER FOR JAPAN • - IMPERIAL NAVY SEVERELY DAMAGED • - PLAYS MINOR ROLE AFTER

  36. IWO JIMA • IWO JIMA CRITICAL AS BASE FROM WHICH PLANES CAN REACH JAPAN • 6,000 MARINES DIE TAKING ISLAND • OF 20,700 JAPANESE ONLY 200 SURVIVE • BATTLE FOR OKINAWA • APRIL 1945 UNITED STATES MARINES INVADE OKINAWA • APRIL–JUNE: 7,600 UNITED STATES TROOPS AND 110,000 JAPANESE DIE • ALLIES FEAR INVASION OF JAPAN MAY MEAN 1.5 MILLION ALLIED CASUALTIES

  37. ATOMIC BOMB ENDS THE WAR MANHATTAN PROJECT • J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER IS RESEARCH DIRECTOR OF MANHATTAN PROJECT • JULY 1945 ATOMIC BOMB TESTED IN NEW MEXICO DESERT • PRESIDENT TRUMAN ORDERS MILITARY TO DROP TWO ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN • HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI • AUGUST 6 HIROSHIMA, MAJOR MILITARY CENTER, DESTROYED BY ATOMIC BOMB • 3 DAYS LATER ATOMIC BOMB DROPPED ON CITY OF NAGASAKI • SEPTEMBER 2, 1945 JAPAN SURRENDERS

  38. REBUILDING BEGINS • YALTA CONFERENCE • FEBRUARY 1945 FDR, CHURCHILL, AND STALIN MEET IN YALTA • - DISCUSS POST-WAR WORLD • FDR AND CHURCHILL CONCESSION: TEMPORARILY DIVIDE GERMANY INTO FOUR PARTS • STALIN PROMISES FREE ELECTIONS IN EASTERN EUROPE • FDR GETS SUPPORT FOR CONFERENCE TO ESTABLISH UNITED NATIONS • HUMAN COSTS OF THE WAR • WW II MOST DESTRUCTIVE WAR IN HUMAN HISTORY

  39. NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS • • NUREMBERG TRIALS—24 NAZI LEADERS TRIED AND SENTENCED • - CHARGED WITH CRIMES AGAINST • HUMANITY, AGAINST THE PEACE, AND WAR • CRIMES • ESTABLISH PRINCIPLE THAT PEOPLE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR OWN ACTIONS IN WAR • THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN • MACARTHUR COMMANDS UNITED STATES OCCUPATION FORCES IN JAPAN • OVER 1,100 JAPANESE TRIED AND SENTENCED • MACARTHUR RESHAPES JAPAN’S ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT

  40. OPPORTUNITY AND ADJUSTMENT • ECONOMIC GAINS • DEFENSE INDUSTRIES BOOM AND UNEMPLOYMENT FALLS TO 1.2% IN 1944 • - AVERAGE PAY RISES 10% DURING WAR • FARMERS PROSPER FROM RISING CROP PRICES AND INCREASE IN PRODUCTION • - MANY PAY OFF MORTGAGES • PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN IN WORK FORCE RISES TO 35% • POPULATION SHIFTS • WAR TRIGGERS MASS MIGRATIONS TO • TOWNS WITH DEFENSE INDUSTRIES

  41. SOCIAL ADJUSTMENTS • FAMILIES ADJUST TO FATHERS IN MILITARY AND MOTHERS REAR CHILDREN ALONE • FAMILIES MUST GET TO KNOW EACH OTHER AGAIN AFTER FATHERS RETURN • MANY COUPLES RUSH TO MARRY BEFORE HUSBAND GOES OVERSEAS • 1944 GI BILL OF RIGHTS OR SERVICEMEN’S READJUSTMENT ACT: • - PAYS EDUCATION, LOAN GUARANTEES FOR • HOMES AND NEW BUSINESSES

  42. CIVIL RIGHTS PROTESTS • • RACIAL TENSIONS RISE IN OVERCROWDED NORTHERN CITIES • JAMES FARMER FOUNDS CONGRESS OFRACIAL EQUALITY (CORE) • - WORKS ON RACIAL SEGREGATION IN • NORTH • • 1943 RACIAL VIOLENCE SWEEPS ACROSS COUNTRY • - DETROIT RIOTS WORST CASE

  43. INTERNMENT OF JAPANESE AMERICANS • JAPANESE AMERICANS PLACED IN INTERNMENT CAMPS • HAWAII GOVERNOR FORCED TO ORDER INTERNMENT(CONFINEMENT) OF JAPANESE • 1942 FDR SIGNS REMOVAL OF JAPANESE AMERICANS IN FOUR STATES • UNITED STATES ARMY FORCES 110,000 JAPANESE AMERICANS INTO INTERNMENT CAMPS • 1944 KOREMATSU V. UNITED STATES—COURT RULES IN FAVOR OF INTERNMENT • AFTER WAR JAPANESE AMERICAN CITIZENSLEAGUE PUSHES FOR COMPENSATION • 1988 CONGRESS GRANTS $20,000 TO EVERYONE SENT TO RELOCATION CAMP