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Design Strategies for Zero Adoption Impact Applications -The Ultimate in Ubiquity rev 1.0. by Assoc. Prof. Karl Reed,FACS, FIE-Aust., MSc,ARMIT. Department of Computer Science & Computer Engineering, La Trobe University

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design strategies for zero adoption impact applications the ultimate in ubiquity rev 1 0
Design Strategies for Zero Adoption Impact Applications -The Ultimate in Ubiquity rev 1.0

by Assoc. Prof. Karl Reed,FACS, FIE-Aust., MSc,ARMIT

Department of Computer Science & Computer Engineering, La Trobe University

Visiting Researcher, Universita Degli Studi di Milano Dipartmento di tehnologie dell’Informazione

this talk
1. The case for Zero Adoption Impact Applications (ZAIA), the idea, its origins

2. Criteria for ZAIA applications

3. Simple examples of ZAIA systems in everyday life

4. Examples of ZAIA failures

5. An example of a potential ZAIA system, Wordtab

6. The research issue a design strategy for ZAIA applications

7. ZAIA criteria revisited-as philosophy, what else does it give us?

8. Conclusion

And Now for something Completely Different!!!!

This Talk…
slide3
1. ZAIA, the idea, its origins

A. Examining possible future directions for IESE in the financial services sector showed v. large numbers of small businesses (in Germany) (EITO studies also show major concern about replacement of large-scale legacy systems..)

Demographics of German Financial System *[Gfk**]

*Expect French, Italian Sector to have similar demography

** I have NEVER been able to find this reference since then! A warning to researchers

slide4
1. The case for Zero Adoption Impact Applications (ZAIA), the idea, its origins

B. This lead us to examine impediments to software adoption in this (and other small-business sectors).

Impediments are…

-acquisition cost -obvious

-fitness for use -obvious

-cost of adoption -we’d consider training in addition to

acquisition cost

-impact of adoption -not so obvious, need to consider

disruption to patterns of business,

could be THE show-stopper for 1-4

person business

D. So, what happens if we make minimization of the impact adoption our primary goal?? Enter ZAIA

slide5
Adoption Costs Due to impact of “learning” on ROI..-simple exponential learning curve shows time required for equality of output for new and old processes in terms of productivity increase. c = time for learning to be 95% complete

-doesn’t include lost opportunity cost or disruption to business patterns-implications for very small businesses are extreme.-what new technology gives a 50% productivity increase??

slide6
2. Criteria for ZAIA Systems

How do we minimize adoption costs?

Model No. 1-- New system is totally identical to existing systems, hence..

- No new learning required,

- User only notices better performance..

- New systems actually invisible

Examples.. - OS grade fixing minor bugs,

- OS upgrade reducing resource utilization (very rare!)

- Introduction of computer control of automobile functions

-ABS, Engine Management

slide7
2. Criteria for ZAIA Systems

How do we minimize adoption costs?

Model No. 2-- New system proper functional superset of existing systems,

hence, plus Model 1...

- No new learning required, unless wanted by user

- User only notices better performance..

- Added functionality can be “logical upgrade” of

existing functionality, making it easier to learn

Examples.. Could apply to any software if done correctly,

New system identical to old, but has improved error

recovery, for e.g.

-Sewing machines

-Refrigerators

slide8
2. Criteria for ZAIA Systems

How do we minimize adoption costs?

Model No. 3-- New system is totally identical to existing systems, but

adds radical functionality that is easy to learn..

- New learning derived from functional need

that motivated the new system..

- User obtains massive increase in productivity for very

minor learning effort.

Examples.. Adding extended back-end DB capability to a simple

query system,

Adding DB capability to tables in word..

slide9
2. Criteria for ZAIA Systems

Some Issues on Learnability..

slide12
3. Simple examples of ZAIA systems

The automatic formatting mechanism in Word that produces hanging tags..

-Proposed by the author 1981, and used as a student exercise for a toy office automation system….

-Introduced by MS ca 1994 in Word

The word version does not work quite as well as the design proposed by Reed and students

slide13
4. Examples of ZAIA Failures

Apple OS 10 upgrades for Intel chips omit OS9….

--Apps requiring OS 9 cannot be run, includes early versions of MS Office

(OS 9 supported OS 7, totally seamlessly, early versions of OS 10 supported OS 9)

-------Users need to buy new software, or migrate

Apple 10.7 (Lion) omits Rosetta….

--Apps running in power-PC code cannot be run.

-------Users need to buy new software, or migrate.. Example of tool which

no longer supported.. Eudora

Adoption of SAP by major University…

--1000 casual users disrupted

MS Office not compatible over multiple releases..

--Old Word, Excel, PPT cannot be processed

slide14
4. Examples of ZAIA Failures

Reason to believe that examples of Post Adoption Trauma are related to failure to attempt address ZAIA issues

slide15
The Post Adoption Rollercoaster from [Rosenal,2004]

What Rosenal DOES NOT say is that post adoption costs, (i.e. the total incremental spend on training, user support, impact recovery), are often many times the acquisition cost for the system!

slide16
Consequences of ignoring ZAIA**

Recent Australian experience is of a class of New Process Adoption Failure (usually IT) in which systems are completed to spec., accepted, but seriously disrupt the organisations concerned.

  • Australian Customs Service cargo system [Booze Hamilton,2006] , [stapleton,2005]
  • Qantas Smartjet aircraft maintenance system [Woodhead, 2007]
  • SME’s post adoption problems not understood by the IT community [Barnes,2006]
  • Negative reaction to new travel agent system*
  • The 20yr old accounting system at a major university is replaced with the latest package. Significant disruption ensues, and substantial, unpredicted post-adoption

*While collecting my airline ticket, the travel agent was complaining about a new system that was not working as well as the previous one.. And was less flexible.

** Ernesto Damiani, Maria G.. Fugini, Karl ReedOn the Measurement and Prediction of The Evolution of Business Processes Under Repeated Use- Research Issues EQUITY 2007, Amsterdam

slide17
Failure to Deal with Broad Design issues a ZAIA Failure?
  • Insufficient recognition of the fact that, where IT system are not simply “end-to-end” automation without human involvement, there may be an irreconcilable mis-match (lack of “fit”) between the process being introduced and its new environment
  • Where a non-IT dominated Business Process is concerned, this lack of “fit” can be even worse. Plus..
  • Insufficient allowance for the impact of human actors evolving a system with experience. (May be part of the PAT problem.. Human actors may not be able to see how the process will work when they are experienced with it? More later)
  • Management often assumes that the existing process, and hence the human actors, are the problem, and ignore their potential contribution and role in an improved process..an impediment to ZAIA design
  • Major new processes (and their supporting IT systems) are sometimes made by senior management without proper reference to the IT and business unit domain experts, and for “political” reasons.[Larsen 1999][Besson 2001]

*We are conscious that this issue is not unknown, but the fact that it keeps on happening means that it is not well understood or being taken seriously, at least in the SE and IS communities

slide18
5. An example of a potential ZAIA system, Table-Base

Using a table to create a hierarchy is natural.

One does not keep creating new rows, one creates sub-rows often with a common root.

There could be a number of “null” entries, where the user has aligned entries in different in different columns.

Having the DB stored would allow sensible searches, and, searches to be made.

The DB definition could be extracted from the table itself.

slide20
6. The research issue-a design strategy for ZAIA applications

Table V-Research Issues and Sources for ZAIA Methodology Development (Reed 2006)

slide23
7. ZAIA criteria revisited-as philosophy, what else does it give us?

- A Framework for the design of extremely low-adoption cost applications.

- A Framework for identifying “invisible” applications for ubiquitous applications.

- Enforcing a usercentric, domain aware approach to systems development and deployment

Finally..

- A Research Agenda for the Software Engineering community.. The development of a ZAIA framework

slide24
8. Conclusion

- Failure to consider the ZAIA issue may be at the heart of major systems failure

- ZAIA systems will be readily market able into well-established user communities which are otherwise saturated.

And Now…

Something Different

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