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  1. ePortfolios: Institutional Adoption Strategies E-Learning Strategies & Practices Hokling CHEUNG Office of Education Development and General Education City University of Hong Kong December 1, 2010

  2. Source: Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovation Theory Innovation Adoption Visions Pragmatic Values (Everett Rogers, 1962 & VH Carr Jr, 1999)

  3. Visions Pragmatic Values

  4. Visions Visions Personal Development Planning A Personal Learning Space Approaches to Lifelong Learning ePortfolios Digital Identity User-centric e-Learning Environment Social Learning & Learning Communities

  5. “A portfolio tells a story.” “The portfolio is a laboratory where students construct meaning from their accumulated experience.” “A portfolio is opinion backed by fact ..” Paulson & Paulson, 1991 What are they? ePortfolios A teaching portfolio “summarizes major teaching accomplishments and strengths of a professor, and provides a selective account of best practices. It is both reflective and qualitative in its assembly, and involves the collection and presentation of materials in a concise manner (i.e., it's more than just a container to showcase instructional materials)." http://www.tss.uoguelph.ca/resources/idres/packagetd.html

  6. Types of Portfolios • Learning portfolios • Employment portfolios • Assessment portfolios • Showcase portfolios • Personal development portfolios • Teaching portfolios • Training portfolios These different "types“ of ePortfolios reflected the fact that ePortfolios are being produced andconsumed(used) in many different processes, or to managedifferent processes. Serge Ravet http://www.eife-l.org/publications/eportfolio/documentation/positionpaper

  7. Paperless portfolios ? An ePortfolio is “a collection of authentic and diverse evidence, drawn from a larger archive, that represents what a person or organisation has learned over time, on which the person or organisation hasreflected, anddesigned for presentation to one or more audiences for a particular rhetorical purpose". Educause, NLII, 2003 What are they? ePortfolios

  8. ePortfolios product process self Personal particulars Biography Values & Beliefs Goals Aspirations Styles Interests & Hobbies Learning Development Plan Execution Documentation Reflection Collaboration Showcase Assessment Graduate Employment Professional Appraisal + + IDENTITY PRESENTATION MANAGEMENT(frequent update, sharing, dialogic feedback & collaboration)

  9. What are they to e-Learning? ePortfolios

  10. asynchronous synchronous anywhere anytime e-Learning • role-based/hierarchical • Instructor vs Students • unequal access to functions & info. • distributive • web 2.0: Wiki, Blog, RSS (partial) • course-based • teacher-owned • LearningManagement • Systems

  11. asynchronous synchronous anywhere anytime e-Learning Internet(Web2.0) Web as a platform open for everyone to participate, share information, organize & create knowledge, initiate discussion & activities, social network & collaborate etc.

  12. communicate everywhere with whoever we want take snapshots of different moments of life capture the motion of time and interaction interact in different ways record the music of laughters and tears make things much more portable and sharable Technologies have enabled everyone of us to

  13. ePortfolios are • repository of work & experiences • personal knowledge management tools • showcase of reflective learning and lifestyle! • celebration of accomplishments • platforms for connection • lifelong learning strategies

  14. asynchronous synchronous anywhere anytime ePortfolios • user centric • personal & social • management • goals & plans • activities • thoughts • artifacts • comments & feedback • access & privileges • collaboration • presentation & showcase unequal access course-based hierarchical distributive e-Learning

  15. Visions Pragmatic Values

  16. Visions Pragmatic Values Communication Implementation Investigation Information Facilitation Evaluation

  17. 2009-11 ePortfolios for All: A Roadmap for Success 2007-09 Electronic Learning Portfolio 2005-06 English Language Portfolio

  18. ePortfolio for Learning Outcomes Extrinsic Motivation attend classes relate Reflection, Feedback & Dialogue Activities + Outcomes complete assignments Outcomes + Goals take examinations Goals + Actions ePortfolio: Goals, Action Plans, Accomplishment, Reflection, Collection of Artifacts, Qualifications get the grades internalise enjoy the break Intrinsic Motivation

  19. “…without a central focus on reflection, e-portfolios are in danger of becoming simply a collection of information rather than a mechanism for the development of meaningful knowledge.” Battacharya, M & Hartnett, M. E-Portfolio Assessment in Higher Education [Online]. Available: http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie2007/papers/1720.pdf [Accessed June 17, 2008]

  20. Some comments from ePortfolio developers (By using ePortfolio,) I can focus on what my goals are, and follow step by step to achieve my goals. (ePortfolios) enable me to evaluate my learning process and outcome. As a research student, I find ePortfolio is a useful tool for managing information and organising thoughts...thanks. (ePortfolio) helps me plan my three years’ university life. (ePortfolio helps us) review what we have done, evaluate our goals and express our strengths to others. ePortfolio is useful for every students. I think that ePortfolio workshops should be promoted to all students since their first year in the university.

  21. Feedback from students • Many students (65%) realise that preparation and planninglike goal setting, action planning, knowing the course ILOs and assessment criteria, etc. are helpful for achieving better performance. Having the experience indeveloping ePortfoliosandlearning to reflect, many students identified important factors or strategies that can help them learn better. (634 students responded in Semester A & B 2007-8)

  22. Feedback from students The positive effect on learning is related mainly to the practices ofreflectionand theprocess of portfolio making. Both formative and summative reflectionwere agreed to be important by about half of the students.  • 56% reflection is very important during the processof learning.  • 46% reflective review and summary at the end of a particular course or activity is important.  • 62% students think thatthe process of developing a portfolio is useful for learning. • 34% students thinkthe end product of the portfolio is useful for learning.  (634 students responded in Semester A & B 2007-8)

  23. Programmes Language Students Courses Exchange Staff Development Field Trip Job Application Academic advising Celebrities Internship Professional Development Student Ambassadors University transitions Employers Policies Employment preparation Senior Management Teachers Co-curriculum Other universities Overseas universities Secondary schools Student Learning Profile (SLP) Integration to courses & activities ePortfolios

  24. ePortfolio Coverage

  25. ePortfolios for All: A Roadmap For Success A CityU Teaching Development Grant funded project

  26. ePortfolios: Plan, Manage, Reflect and Present Your Goals, Accomplishments and Expertise Professional Portfolios Showcase Portfolios Graduate/Employment Portfolios Learning Portfolios Performance Appraisal Portfolios Language Portfolios event organisation workshops community services recognitions Graduation Learning & Development Continuing Professional Development projects study trip courses exchange further study publications final year project competitions course work professional membership internship awards part-time jobs group projects Student unions community services

  27. Academic Advising Learning Teaching Assessment ePortfolios ILOs Institutional Enhancement ATs TLAs Employment Professional Development • Academic Advising • Self-awareness • University Study Guidance • Students at-Risk Assistance • Enhancement of Learning & Teaching • Motivation & Engagement • Goal Setting & Action Planning • Reflection/Reflective Practice • Learning & Knowledge Management • Learning Community • Lifelong Learning • Outcomes • Performance Assessment • Evidence Collection • Evaluation/Quality Assurance • Professional Development • Articulation of Expertise & Achievements • Career Planning and Preparation • Tenure Review, Awards, Promotion • Reflective Practice • Publicity

  28. ePortfolios for All: A Roadmap for Success - Project Overview Graduate ePortfolios Learning ePortfolios Personal Development ePortfolios Career Preparation ePortfolios Professional ePortfolios • Track I: Student Learning • Design and delivery of voluntary workshops • Specific students targeted (e.g. A+++ students, student ambassadors) • University-wide promotion • ePortfolio Competition and Award Ceremony • Track III: Staff Development • Project investigators create their own professional development ePortfolios. • Collaboration with teachers and co-curricular activities coordinators to integrate ePortfolio, reflection or related skills in the programmes, courses or activities. • Appreciation of the value of ePortfolios for development and learning • Provide encouragement and set an example for students • Student Learning Outcomes • use effective skills and strategies to design ePortfolios for specific purposes • select and use available tools to construct ePortfolios  • identify how CityU's learning activities, support resources and services, etc, relate to attaining the Ideal Graduate attributes and programme outcomes • adopt reflective practices to manage learning and development • articulate and evidence their accomplishments, abilities and aspirations in the specific context of learning and development. • Teacher Learning Outcomes • design & construct their own • professional ePortfolios • guide students to become Ideal • Graduates • recognise the importance of • reflection in learning • adopt strategies to encourage • student reflection • Project Aims: • lay the foundations of a university wide ePortfolio culture • actualise full student learning experience • promote the goal of becoming CityU Ideal Graduates • motivate students to take ownership and responsibility • for their learning, development and career success • inform and motivate students to use available support • resources & services • motivate teachers and coordinators of co-curricular • activities to review their teaching and coaching practices • and integrate reflection into the related activities ePortfolios purposes, contexts & audience Generic structure with specific strategies students teachers Self-selected students and students from participating courses & co-curricular activities. Available to all CityU students. Investigators of the project, teachers and coordinators of co-curricular activities. ePortfolio Commons • Track II: Roadmaps • ePortfolio Repository: Discipline specific ePortfolio templates to inform, recommend & direct students to specific resources, services, co-curricular activities, workshops and schemes etc. • Guide students towards: programme outcomes, ideal graduate attributes and employment opportunities • Celebrities’ ePortfolios Departments, programme leaders and other university support units. institution

  29. Research Promotion Outreach Training • University Success Roadmap • ePortfolio template for transitions and university study guidance • ePortfolio Workshops/Sessions • Learning • Employment • Teaching • Creative Use of Multimedia • Strategic Teaching Enhancement Programme • ePortfolio Information Seminar • Online Guides & Resources • ePortfolio HOW • ePortfolio WHY • ePortfolio GALLERY/Repository • Celebrities’ ePortfolios • Student celebrities • Teacher celebrities • Professional celebrities • Research & Publications • ePortfolio Pedagogies • ePortfolio Technologies • Impact on learning • Impact on employability • Generic structure of ePortfolios • Publicity & information leaflets • ePortfolio Competition • ePortfolio Commons http://www.cityu.edu.hk/edge/eportfolio

  30. University Success Roadmap • ePortfolio template for transitions and university study guidance • ePortfolio Workshops/Sessions • Learning • Employment • Teaching • Creative Use of Multimedia • Strategic Teaching Enhancement Programme • ePortfolio Information Seminar • Online Guides & Resources • ePortfolio HOW • ePortfolio WHY • ePortfolio GALLERY/Repository • Celebrities’ ePortfolios • Student celebrities • Teacher celebrities • Professional celebrities • Research & Publications • ePortfolio Pedagogies • ePortfolio Technologies • Impact on learning • Impact on employability • Generic structure of ePortfolios • Publicity & information leaflets • ePortfolio Competition • ePortfolio Commons http://www.cityu.edu.hk/edge/eportfolio

  31. ePortfolio Workshops

  32. steers first-to-final-year students emphasizes whole-person development & lifelong learning facilitates student-centric information delivery develops reflective thinking skills & other important generic skills Roadmap for University Success

  33. Publications Fisher, D.W., Cheung, H.L., Chen, Y., Chan, Y.F. & Wong, M.C. (forthcoming). ePortfolios for higher education: A Hong Kong perspective. In D. Cambridge (ed.) Global Diffusion of E-Portfolio: Solutions for Collaborative Education. IGI Global. Kwok, C.W., Cheung, H.L., Chen, Y.J., Thadani, D., Bandyopadhyay, R., Lau, T.Y. & Wong, M.C. (forthcoming). Positive effects of reflective ePortfolio on overseas exchange learning experience. In 3rd International Conference on Computer Supported Education, the Netherlands, 6-9 May, 2011. Fisher, D.W., Cheung, H.L., Pickard, V. & Chen, Y.J. (2010). Embarking on the Journey of ePortfolio Experience: A New Approach to Enhance Graduate Employability. Learning Forum London 2010, ePortfolio 2010 and Key Competencies 2010, London, July 5-7, 2010. Kwok, C.W., Cheung, H.L., Pickard, V., Chen, Y.J., Lau, T.Y., Bandyopadhyay, R. & Wong, M.C. (2010). Effects of Reflective e-Portfolio on Students' Overseas Exchange Learning Experience. Teaching and Learning Symposium 2010, Hong Kong, June 6-8 2010.

  34. Publications Zhou, M., Cheung, H.L., Wong, M.C., Chan, Y.F. & Pickard, V. (2010). An Evaluation of Electronic Portfolio Platforms in Higher Education. e-CASE & e-Tech 2010 Conference, Macau, China, January 25-27, 2010. (Distinguished Paper Award) Cheung, H.L., Zhou, M., Pickard, V., Fisher, D.W. & Chan, Y.F. (2010). The Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Generic Structure for ePortfolios/Portfolios. e-CASE & e-Tech 2010 Conference, Macau, China, January 25-27, 2010. Cheung, H.L., Fisher, D.W., Pickard, V. & Chan, Y.F. (2009). Scaffolding Student Learning: Integrating ePortfolios into the University Experience. International Conference on Improving University Teaching (IUT), Vancouver, Canada, July 14-17, 2009. Williams, F., Chan, Y.F. & Cheung, H.L. (2009). The English Language E-portfolio. In J. Zubizarreta (ed.). The Learning Portfolio. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass. Williams. F., Chan, Y.F. & Cheung, H.L. (2007). Promoting Active and Reflective Learning Through e-Portfolios: Difficulties And Challenges. International Conference on Improving University Teaching (IUT), Jaén, Spain, July 4 -7, 2007.

  35. ePortfolio & Employability Job application Maintaining employment & obtaining new employment if needed Skills & strategies developed Important in the workplace = Will employers view job applicants' ePortfolios if a link is provided? At which stage of the recruitment process do employers see ePortfolios as being potentially most effective? To what extent can ePortfolios help students develop a set of skills and strategies that are desirable for employers? Ref: Hillage, J and Pollard, E (1998) Employability: developing a framework for policy analysis. Research Brief 85, Department for Education and Employment

  36. Student Post-Experience & Employer SurveysEmployability Enhancement(Some preliminary data) Goal Setting & Action Planning Skills developed Important in the workplace

  37. Post-Experience & Employer SurveysEmployability Enhancement(Some preliminary data) Goal Setting & Action Planning Identify Strengths & Weaknesses

  38. Post-Experience & Employer SurveysEmployability Enhancement(Some preliminary data) Goal Setting & Action Planning Identify Strengths & Weaknesses Record Accomplishments

  39. Post-Experience & Employer SurveysEmployability Enhancement(Some preliminary data) Goal Setting & Action Planning Identify Strengths & Weaknesses Record Accomplishments Provide Evidence for Performance Claims

  40. Post-Experience & Employer SurveysEmployability Enhancement(Some preliminary data) Goal Setting & Action Planning Identify Strengths & Weaknesses Record Accomplishments Provide Evidence for Performance Claims Establish a Positive Image

  41. Employability Job application

  42. Employability Job application

  43. Visions Pragmatic Values Communication Implementation Investigation Information Facilitation Evaluation

  44. Why top down? What are the needs & challenges? Visions Pragmatic Values What are the possible benefits?

  45. ePortfolio Initiatives at National Level & in Tertiary Institutions • EuropeEuropass & EPICC: increase transparency of qualifications, citizens’ mobility, lifelong learning, continuing professional development • UKPersonal Development Planning (PDP) • Australiadevelopment of graduate capabilities • USreflective learning and personal development • CanadaGraduation Portfolio Assessment • HKOutcomes-Based Teaching & Learning (OBTL), Student Learning Profile (SLP) & Other Learning Experience (OLE)

  46. Driving Forces POLICY LEARNING OUTCOMES EMPLOYABILITY TECHNOLOGY QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDANCE LIFELONG LEARNING • National policy(Mobility of Citizens & Competiveness) • Course/Programme/School level • Student centered learning • Graduate capabilities • Generic skills & knowledge for real-world applications • Employment, Job search/ Transparency of Qualifications • Appraisal, Tenure and promotion processes • Infusion of technology/ Empowerment of individuals • Digital, Not Physical! • Outcomes based teaching & learning • Authentic and performance assessment • Institutional achievement/ improvement • Academic advising • Career consultation • Whole Person Development • Lifelong learning

  47. Relevant Trends in Higher Education • Authentic learning experiences • Learning communities (peer learning, collegiality) • Competencies & outcomes • Transferable & employability skills • Blending information literacy, technology fluency, communication proficiency, presentation skills and domain knowledge • Treating students as big-picture thinkers and critically engaged doers • Academic advising • Reflective practices & continuous development (employability) • Era of accountability & QA • Lifelong learning Reese, M. et al & Moore, Anne H. et al http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERB0904.pdf

  48. Issues & Challenges Perception & Purposes • confusion caused by widely differing definitions and perceptions of the nature and functions of ePortfolios.  ePortfolios are not only different things to different people, they can also be different things to the same person as perspectives and purposes change. • problems arising from the conflicting paradigms and purposes of ePortfolios (Barrett and Carney, 2005) Motivation • Benefits/Incentives (extrinsic & intrinsic motivation) • Time & efforts • Technical challenges (digital native vs consumer)