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  1. Pick up a clicker.Have your student ID number ready to enter. Upcoming Deadlines First Homework (Setting up a Blog) 5 points Second Homework (Mini-portfolio): Due Thursday, Sept. 1st (This week) no later than 8 AM! 10 points (5 points if late) For full schedule, visit course website: ArtPhysics123.pbworks.com

  2. Homework Assignment #2 Make an entry in your course blog called "Mini-Portfolio" to post images and movies showing some examples of your work in animation or illustration (if any). Also tell me a little bit about yourself, such as your major, what courses you've taken in art and in science, what you're taking now, what you're interested in doing when you finish school, etc.

  3. Homework #2 (cont.) You will not be graded on the quality of the work; some of you have extensive portfolios while others are just starting (or have no experience at all). The purpose of this assignment is two-fold: First, it gives you some practice editing your blog, in particular uploading images and movies. Second, it gives me (and your classmates) a chance to get to know you.

  4. Homework #2 (cont.) Assignment Checklist * Created post entitled "Mini-Portfolio" on your personal blog for this course. * Uploaded at least two images, preferably but not necessarily your own work. * Uploaded at least one video clip, preferably but not necessarily your own work. * Included a paragraph describing yourself, especially your academic work.

  5. Homework #2 (cont.) This assignment is due by 8am on Thursday, Sept. 1st (This week) The morning that your homework is due I’ll visit your blog, check that you’ve done it, assign a grade (points), and leave comments. Tell me if you want me to send your grade by e-mail instead of posting it on your blog.

  6. Using Clickers We’ll be using clickers for class participation. If you don’t remember your student ID number, look it up now.

  7. Activating your Clicker * Turn on your clicker. * After a few seconds, hit the ‘*’ key * Scroll down using the ‘’ key until you reach ‘ID:’ and press the  Enter/Send key * Type in your student ID; hit Enter/Send. Hit any key to wake the clicker from sleep mode.

  8. Activating your Clicker * Scroll down to ‘New class scan’ * Enter the channel number or letter for joining this class. Hit Enter/Send key. * Clicker should read AP123KF11 * Hit Enter/Send. Clicker is now ready to use; leave it on. Hit any key to wake the clicker from sleep mode.

  9. Survey Question What is your major? • Animation / Illustration Art major • Art major but not A/I • Science or engineering major • None of the above Enter your answer and press the green Return key. The display should say “Received”

  10. Survey Question You have already done the second homework (mini-portfolio). True (T) or False (F) Note: You score 1 point of credit for answering survey questions, regardless of your answer.

  11. Survey Question How much time did you spend on the first homework (create a blog) • Less than 30 minutes • An hour or so • Several hours • Did not get it done yet

  12. Clicker Questions in Class Keep your clicker handy during class; you’ll be asked quiz questions from time to time. During these quizzes you may talk to other persons to discuss the question. The point is for you to learn rather than just testing. Each class will start with a quiz question so be on time! Hit any key to wake the clicker from sleep mode.

  13. Physics of FallingPart I

  14. Ball Drop Animation Exercise Typically the first example one looks at in animation is falling motion, such as a falling ball. In this exercise, the drawing couldn’t be simpler. It’s just the same round ball in every drawing. Nevertheless, animating the ball so that it moves realistically can still be a challenge. But the challenge is not in how you draw the ball but where it is drawn on each frame.

  15. Ball Drop in Animation Books The ball drop is discussed in every major textbook for animation. Why is this example considered so important?

  16. It’s all in the timing… An essential element of animation is the timing and spacing between drawings “It’s not important what goes on each frame of film; it’s the spaces between the frames that are important. “ Norman McLaren Oscar winning animator of Neighbors

  17. Principles of Animation In The Illusion of Life, Frank Thomas and Olie Johnston list a set of basic principles for animation. • Squash & Stretch • Timing • Anticipation • Staging • Follow Through & Overlapping Action • Straight Ahead & Pose-to-Pose Action 7. Slow In and Slow Out 8. Arcs 9. Exaggeration 10. Secondary Action 11. Appeal

  18. Principles of Timing and Spacing The principles of timing and spacing used to create a believable ball drop apply to many other types of motion, even character animation such as a jumping cat or effects animation such as a stream of water.

  19. Timing: Frames, Keys, & Clocks • We use three different ways of measuring time: • Frames(intervals of 1/24th of a second) • Keys(reference poses, with given # of frames • between them) • Clocks(actual seconds as measured by a clock) • For example, you may “slug out” a scene using a stop watch, then convert that into a number of key poses, which appear as frames on your dope sheet (also called an exposure sheet or X sheet).

  20. Frames per Second (FPS) Frame rate is measured in frames per second (FPS). Two common frame rates: 24 FPS – Used in film 30 FPS – Used in video We will always use 24 FPS in our examples and convert to video frame rate if needed. (4 Frames of Film) = (5 Frames of Video)

  21. Frames between Keys Here are the key poses in a jump with the drawings “shot on threes”, that is, three frames per drawing. #3 #4 #2 #5 #1 IMPORTANT: For simplicity, in all our examples the key poses will always have an equal number of frames between each key.

  22. Dope Sheets Dope sheets (also called exposure sheets or X-sheets) are used by animators to tabulate which drawing goes on which frame. #3 Dope Sheet #2 #4 #5 #1 An animator using a dope sheet, including dialogue analysis and thumbnail storyboard sketches.

  23. Uniform Motion The simplest type of motion is uniform motion; a heavy ball rolling on a table is a good example. In uniform motion, the velocity is constant so the spacing from frame to frame is constant. Larger the spacing, the faster the ball is moving.

  24. Uniform Motion & Speed The timing and spacing determine the speed. This bowling ball is 12 inches in diameter with two frames per drawing (shooting on twos). What is the speed of the bowling ball? The ball rolls about 20 inches per drawing so 10 inches per frame so about 15 m.p.h.

  25. Wile E. Coyote on Rocket Skates http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p4YxdXw9evc Let’s estimate his speed in this scene from “Beep Beep”

  26. Question What would you guess is Wile’s speed? • 20 m.p.h. • 40 m.p.h. • 60 m.p.h. • 80 m.p.h. • 100 m.p.h.

  27. Estimating Wile’s Speed He travels about the length of his ears (say 12-15 inches) per frame so he’s only going about 20 m.p.h. Frame 717 Frame 718 *Correction of 20% since movie is 30 fps instead of 24 fps; going 24 m.p.h.

  28. Slowing In (or Easing In) If an object’s motion is not uniform, the object is either speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction. If the speed is decreasing then the spacing between drawings decreases, which in animation is called “slowing in” (or “easing in”). Slowing In A sled slowing by friction is a simple example of slowing in.

  29. Slowing Out (or Easing Out) If the speed is increasing then the spacing between drawings increases, which in animation is called “slowing out” (or “easing out”). Slowing Out Slowing Out A ball falling downward is another example of slowing out. A ball rolling down an incline is an example of slowing out.

  30. Principles of Animation Slowing in and out is another one of the principles of animation. • Squash & Stretch • Timing • Anticipation • Staging • Follow Through & Overlapping Action • Straight Ahead & Pose-to-Pose Action 7. Slow In and Slow Out 8. Arcs 9. Exaggeration 10. Secondary Action 11. Appeal

  31. Spacing Charts The Animator’s Survival Kit (and many other books) presents slowing in and out with spacing charts next to the animation drawings. Slowing Out Slowing In Pendulum Swing Spacing Chart

  32. Slowing In & Out in Spacing Charts Uniform motion (from Animator’s Survival Kit) Slowing in & out (from Animator’s Survival Kit)

  33. Slowing In & Out in Character Animation The importance of slowing in & out is that it occurs commonly in all types of animated motion. (from Animator’s Survival Kit)

  34. Ball Drop Animation Exercise Apex Let’s look at the ball drop in detail, first looking at the motion as the ball slows out from the apex. First, we’ll carefully observe the motion, both live and with video reference.

  35. Ball Drop Video Reference Falling occurs quickly so it’s difficult to see details. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YSqkulTyaNY

  36. Ball Drop Video Reference This is in slow-motion, at one-quarter the normal speed. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHYuAz6sY4k

  37. Distance Fallen from an Apex Distance fallen from the drawing at the highest point (called the apex) is given by this table. The formula to compute this table is: (Distance in inches) = (Number of Frames) x (Number of Frames) x (1/3 inch)

  38. Planning a Scene You want to animate a softball falling straight down from a height of four feet. Diameter of a baseball is four inches. How many total frames will we need to animate? The table says it takes 12 frames (½ a second) for the ball to fall four feet. So there will be 13 frames, including the first frame, which is the release. ?

  39. Planning a Scene (cont.) Let’s say we’ll “shoot on twos” and only draw every other frame. With key #1 being the release, how many drawings do you need? In other words, how would you fill out this dope sheet? ?

  40. Planning a Scene (cont.) #2? #3? This dope sheet is very simple to fill out. You see that shooting on twos means there are seven drawings for the 13 frames. #4? #5? #6? But where is the ball on keys #2 through #6?

  41. Straight-Ahead Animation In Straight-Ahead animation, you have a first drawing and a rough idea of what you want for action. First drawing Next, we want to have some idea as to how many drawings will take us from this first key pose to that conclusion of the action Images in your head

  42. Straight-Ahead Animation (cont.) In Straight-Ahead animation, the next step is to decide on the second drawing and draw that frame. First drawing Images in your head Second drawing

  43. Straight-Ahead for Ball Drop A) The first key is when the ball is released and the second key is two frames later (since we’re “shooting on twos”). About where will the ball be on the second key? B) C) D) Ball is 4 inches in diameter

  44. Straight-Ahead for Ball Drop B) The table tells us that after two frames the ball falls by 1 1/3 inches, a third of its diameter of 4 inches. B) Ball diameter is 4 inches

  45. Home Demo: Catch a Buck Take a one dollar bill and have a friend put their thumb and index fingers near Washington’s head. At random, let go of the dollar. Can your friend react fast enough to catch the money?

  46. Reaction Time to Catch a Buck How quickly do you have to react in order to catch the dollar? • 1/24th second • 1/12th second • 1/8th second • 1/4th second • ½ second

  47. Reaction Time to Catch a Buck C) 1/8th second Half length of dollar bill is 3 inch so it takes about 1/8 of a second (0.125 seconds) to fall this distance. Typical reaction time is 0.20 to 0.25 seconds so most people cannot catch the dollar.

  48. Measuring Reaction Time Distance (inches) Time (sec.) 1 0.07 2 0.10 3 0.12 4 0.14 5 0.16 6 0.17 7 0.19 8 0.20 10 0.23 12 0.25 14 0.27 16 0.29 18 0.30 Release Catch

  49. Slugging and Reaction Time In planning a scene, you may use a stopwatch to time it as acted out in live action (called “slugging” a scene). Your reaction time is about a 1/4 second delay so should you subtract that much from your stopwatch reading? No, because there’s a reaction time delay in hitting START but also in hitting STOP.

  50. Distance Fallen and Weight The distance that an object falls does not depend on its weight so long as the force of air resistance is minimal. A softball and a bowling ball fall together when released from the same apex.