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Monday May 12, 2014. Starter : What phylum would fish fall into? What characteristics tell you what phylum they are in?. Tuesday May 13, 2014.

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monday may 12 2014
Monday May 12, 2014
  • Starter: What phylum would fish fall into? What characteristics tell you what phylum they are in?
tuesday may 13 2014
Tuesday May 13, 2014
  • Starter:Yesterday we discussed chordates and the different classes considered as chordates. Into which class would perch be classified? What about sharks?
  • *This will be needed for dissection tomorrow and next week*
phylum chordata
Phylum Chordata
  • Subphylum Urochordata

(uro = tail; chordata= cord)

  • Subphylum Cephalochordata

(cephalo = head; chordata= cord)

  • Subphylum Vertebrata

(vertebrate = backbone)

phylum chordata1
Phylum Chordata
  • All exhibit these characteristics:
    • 1) dorsal tubular nerve cord
    • 2) notochord
      • fluid filled cells encased by fibrous tissue is located between the digestive tube and the nerve cord
    • 3) pharyngialslits (aka gills)
    • 4) tail
    • 5) coelom body cavity
    • 6) bilateral symmetry
it s what all the chordates are wearing
It’s What All the Chordates are Wearing

were the first "backbones" serving as support structures in chordates

makes up the nervous system

it s what all the chordates are wearing1
It’s What All the Chordates are Wearing

filter-feeding organs; aka


subphylum urochordata
Subphylum Urochordata
  • sea squirts or tunicates
  • notochord does not extend into head and
  • is only present in adults
  • larvae is free-swimming but non-feeding
  • adult is sessile filter feeder
subphylum cephalochordata
Subphylum Cephalochordata
  • “head” cord
  • lancelet or Amphioxus
  • notochord present throughout life
    • extends into head region
subphylum vertebrata
Subphylum Vertebrata

General Characteristics:

  • chordates with a backbone
  • exhibit cephalization
  • closed circulatory system
  • neural crest: definite place we find a brain
agnatha without jaws
Agnatha (without jaws)
  • lamprey and hagfish
  • no paired appendages
chondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)
  • flexible endoskeletons of cartilage strengthened by calcium granules
  • sharks, skates, and rays
  • internal fertilization
  • some active hunters, other bottom feeders
osteichthyes bony fish
Osteichthyes(bony fish)
  • Endoskeleton of hard calcium phosphate matrix
  • Operculum- protective flap
  • Swim bladder – controls buoyancy and swimming
amphibia two lives
Amphibia(“two lives”)
  • transition to land – still tied to water for respiration and reproduction
  • Gills  lungs (metamorphosis)
  • Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts
reptilia to creep
Reptilia (to creep)
  • lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises, Gila monsters, crocodiles, alligators
  • first true land animal
  • scales, lungs, amniotic eggs
  • no feathers
  • cold-blooded – ectotherms – (energy conservation)
mammalia breast
Mammalia (breast)
  • Active metabolism = warm blooded
  • Efficient respiration (use lungs)
  • Efficient circulation w/

4-chambered heart

  • Layer of fat
  • Mammary glands
aves bird
Aves (bird)
  • feathered
  • few flightless: ostrich, kiwi, emu
  • breastbone with keel – carina – permitting flight
  • jays, sparrows, warblers, etc.
a few classes
A Few Classes:
  • Myxini: jawless Hagfish
    • snake like
  • Cephalaspidomorphi: Lampreys
    • oldest living lineage of verabrates.
  • Chondrichthyes: Sharks, rays, etc.
    • The biggest and most successful predators
  • Actinopterygii: Ray-finned fishes
    • common fishes: bass, clownfish, tuna, etc.
  • Actinistia: Lobed fin, spike containing fish
  • Dipnoi: Lungfish
    • freshwater
nervous system
Nervous System
  • most have a central nervous system
    • brain
    • network of nerves
    • hollow nerve chord
circulatory system
Circulatory System

SYSTEM which contains:

  • at least 1 heart (most 2 chambered some 4 chambered)
  • blood vessels (capillaries, etc) and blood
gas exchange
Gas Exchange
  • pharyngeal slits (aka gills): allow for O2/CO2 gas exchange via capillary network
    • H2O pumped over gills forcing oxygen poor water out and pulling on oxygen rich H2O through their mouths
sensory structures
Sensory Structures
  • most have complex, well developed eyes
  • lateral line: structure that detects motion/vibration in the water
  • some have nasal sacs that connect to their nasal passage to improve their sense of smell
digestive system
Digestive System
  • complete digestive system:
    • ingest food through mouth
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • most have


excretory system
Excretory System
  • all fish:
    • get rid of waste through anus
    • have kidneys
  • some contain urinary bladder
locomotion musculature
  • all contain a complex muscle system similar to humans
  • most use their tails to propel themselves through water
    • some have fins to also aid in movement
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • most have a complex, joint skeleton
  • either made of cartilage or are considered bony (made of calcium phosphate)
  • most have vertebrae (lose notochord during embryonic development)
    • some have more primitive notochord which means less jointed skeletons
  • reproduce sexually
  • most external fertilizers
    • embryos develop and hatch externally (oviparous)
  • Chondrichthyes use internal fertilization
    • in some: embryos carried internally and live birth (viviparous)
    • some ovoviviparous (retain

fertilized eggs hatch within

the uterus)

    • others are oviparous