Inductive Logic and Analogy 9th Meeting
Definition • Induction is a form of reasoning from particular to Universal. • Premises of induction consists of particular proposition; its conclusion is universal proposition • For example, based on a drop of blood can be concluded the sort of somebody’s blood as A, B, or O
The Principle of Reasoning • Construct of reason that help us interpret or organize experience • Human mind graps the intelligible aspect of the things it knows through experience, and this is why it can formulate universal judgements about the nature of these things • The process of passing from the sensible to the intelligible, from particular truths to a universal truth is called induction.
Two basic types of Induction • Essential Induction • Empirical Induction
Essential Induction Essential induction is the discovery made by the intellect when it comes in contact with reality of a necessary and universal link between a subject and a property. It belongs more to intellective function of the mind as it graps intuitively the truth of the first principles. Sensible knowledge (a piece of paper) to intellectual grasping of the judgment
Essential induction involves a clear apprehension of the concept. It is carried out by abstraction, and the fruit of this is formation of concept and first principles. • It draws out their essential content and their essential relations • Through essential induction, we grap the principles of metaphysics and ethics, along with a great number of other universal truths (Examples: Man is free,white, round shape
Two phases of essential induction • There are an adequate sensorial presentation of data which serves as preparatory for induction • The inductive process cultivates in the intellection of a universal judgment.
Empirical induction Empirical induction is the generalization of a connection between a subject and predicate, not on the basis of seeing an essential and necessary link between them, but because of the repeated occurrence of a natural event. Empirical induction is also called as inductive reasoning example: we put our hand close to fire, then we formulate “Fire burns”
Induction by complete enumeration ( the number of individual is finite) • Induction by incomplete enumeration (It is most employed in the experimental sciences) • It a logical form of reasoning that is essentially based on a statistical count.
Empirical generalization always calls for an explanation. The foundation of empirical induction come from knowledge we have of the nature of causality, of the order in the world, and of the relation between a nature and its operations. • The conclusions of empirical induction are more than a simple tabulation of per accidens coincidences
Method of Inductive reasoning • Method of agreement • method of difference • Joint method of agreement and difference • Residue method • Method of concomitant variation
Method of agreement If two or more instanes of the pehenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance in which alone all the instances agree is the cause of the given phenomenon.
Definition of analogy • Connection between and others based on similarity
Type of Analogy • Analogy of Proportionality • Analogy of attribution
Analogy of proportionality • Proportion is a relation of adequacy between two things. For example, matter and form in mathematics, 2:1, 4:2, 8:4 Analogy of Proportionality is frequently used in ordinary life and in scientific research.
The analogy of Attribution • Similarities of this sort however can be reduced to a single principle from which they really proceed • A perfection is predicted with analogy of attribution if among several subjects of a common perfection, there is one which possesses the perfection in all its fullness, while the rest possess it by participation or I a derived fashion.
Case in a dormitory Sopposed that some of the residents of a dormitory have some violently ill, sufferring from stomach distess and nausea, and that it is desired to determine the case of illness. Half a dozen of the affected students are interviewed to find out what they ate on the day the illness began. The first student ate soup at ressto, bread and butter, salad, vegetables, and canned pears; the second student ate soup, bread and butter, vegetables, and canned pears; the third student ate soup, a pork sandwich, salad, and canned pears; the fourth student ate bread and butter, salad, a pork sandwich, vegetables, and canned pears;
The fiftth student ate soup, salad, vegetables, and canned pears. All of them got sick