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CARDIAC PACEMAKER. A cardiac pacemaker is an electric stimulator that produces electric pulses that are conducted to electrodes normally located within the lining of the heart (the endocardium ).

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cardiac pacemaker
CARDIAC PACEMAKER
  • A cardiac pacemaker is an electric stimulator that produces electric pulses that are conducted to electrodes normally located within the lining of the heart (the endocardium).
  • The stimulus conducted to the heart causes it to contract – this effect can be used prosthetically in disease states in which the heart is not stimulated at a proper rate on its own (heart block).
  • Cardiac pacemakers are either of the unipolar or the bipolar type.
  • Unipolar type – a single electrode is in contact with the heart, and the negative-going pulses are connected to it from the generator.
  • Bipolar type – two electrodes are placed within the heart, and the stimulus is applied across theses electrodes.
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CARDIAC PACEMAKER
  • PARTS
  • Bundle Branches
  • Purkinje Fibers
  • Electrode Terminal (Front)
  • Electrode Terminal (Rear)
  • Electrode Tip
  • Heart
  • Pacemaker (Pulse Generator)
  • Subclavian Vein
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CARDIAC PACEMAKER
  • Asynchronous pacemaker

It is the first type of pacemaker that was developed. A cardiac pacemaker that is free running. It gives a fixed heart rate.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

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CARDIAC PACEMAKER
  • Synchronous pacemaker

It is used when a human’s heart can establish a normal cardiac rhythm between periods of block. This means that it is not necessary to stimulates the ventricles continuously.

There are two general forms of synchronous pacemakers: the demand pacemaker and the arial-synchronous pacemaker.

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CARDIAC PACEMAKER
  • Synchronous pacemaker

The demand-type pacemaker

BLOCK DIAGRAM

cardiac pacemaker5
CARDIAC PACEMAKER
  • Synchronous pacemaker

The artial-synchronous pacemaker

BLOCK DIAGRAM