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Populating the Earth. Social Studies Chapter 1 Section 3. Standards. H-SS 6.1.2 Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments.

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populating the earth

Populating the Earth

Social Studies

Chapter 1

Section 3

  • H-SS 6.1.2 Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments.
  • E-LA Reading 6.2.1 Identify the structural features of popular media (e.g. newspapers, magazines, online information) and use the features to obtain information.
  • To learn how humans populated the major regions of the world.
  • To learn how people adapted to new environments and to climate change.
  • Key Terms of this Chapter
    • Populate
    • Migration
    • Environment
    • Adapt
  • Over thousands of years humans spread out to populate, or become inhabitants of every region of the world.
  • Most scientists agree Homo sapiens walked the Earth for only about 100,000 years.
  • They do not agree with where modern humans came from or how the spread around the world.
  • Scientists continue to study both fossils and genetic information, or the qualities one generation passes from one to the next.
  • The scientists that believe Homo sapiens originated in Africa argue that from there they began a long migration to other regions of the world.
  • Migration
    • The movement of people from their homeland to other places.
  • Other scientists disagree. They believed that large-brained groups of humans originated from all over the world.
  • They believe that these different groups mixed together and eventually became one group, the Homo sapiens.
  • Wherever they originated from, about 30,000 years ago the modern humans were in
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Europe
    • Australia
  • 12,500 years ago they reached North and South America.
  • Adapting to Varied Environments
    • As modern humans migrated, they settled in various environments, or surroundings.
    • Each environment had its own climate, plants, and animals.
    • With each move, the people had to adapt, or change their way of life.
    • They had to figure out what plants they could eat, how to hunt different animals, and how to find new materials for tools and shelters.
  • A Changing Climate
    • People had to also adapt to the changes in the Earth’s climate.
    • Over the past two million years there were four long ice ages. The last one was 70,000 years ago before the modern humans appeared.
    • During this age thick sheets of ice called glaciers spread across the Earth.
      • Glaciers covered the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and North America. Parts of the Southern Hemisphere were also under ice.
  • Since the Earth’s water was in the form of glaciers, rainfall decreased.
  • Areas that once had water became deserts.
  • Sea levels dropped exposing “land bridges”
    • These changes allowed animals to migrate to find food.
    • Since people depended on those animals for food, they had to follow them.
  • Staying Warm
    • Ice Age hunter-gatherers adapted to climate in many ways.
    • As winters became longer they learned to use whatever materials they could find to build warm shelters.
    • Eastern Europe
      • Built huts out of mammoth bones (mammoths were huge furry elephants)
      • The huts were covered with animal skins to keep out wind and snow.
    • People also used bone needles to sew snug clothing from animal skins and furs.
    • They also kept fires burning in their hearths day and night.
  • Forming Larger Communities
    • Some groups adapted by forming large communities.
      • Hunters could work together to kill animals such as mammoths.
      • They could better defend their communities from attack.
  • Developing Complex Cultures
  • Over the years communities became more complex (having many parts to connect with each other).
  • Europe
    • Produced early examples of arts.
    • Painted walls and ceiling of caves in present-day Spain and France
    • Meanings of these painting are not known, they might have painted things such as animals to give them power over that animal while hunting.
  • Carved small statues of animals and pregnant women.
    • May have been created to bring luck to hunters or women about to give birth.
  • Burials also became more complex
    • A grave found in present-day Russia had bodies of two children, a boy (13 years old), and a girl (8 years old).
    • Both children were covered with thousands of ivory beads.
    • The boy wore a ivory pendant looking like a mammoth on his chest.
    • The girl wore a bead cap and ivory pin around her throat.
  • Overall these discoveries suggest:
    • Modern humans may have been trying to explain mysteries such as birth and death.
    • They may have developed ideas about powerful beings that humans could not see.
    • Their beliefs would represent the beginnings of religion.
check for understanding
Check for Understanding
  • 1. In which regions did modern humans appear?
    • A. Europe
    • B. Asia
    • C. North America
    • D. All of the continents.
  • Answer
    • D
check for understanding1
Check for Understanding
  • 2. Populate means to
    • A. Spread
    • B. Come together
    • C. Become inhabitants
    • D. Number of people
  • Answer
    • C
check for understanding2
Check for Understanding
  • 3. How did the people adapt to the changing conditions of the last Ice Age?
    • A. Hunt for mammoth.
    • B. Use mammoth for food, clothing, and shelter.
    • C. Form large groups for hunt, trade, and defense.
    • D. All of the above.
  • Answer
    • D
check for understanding3
Check for Understanding
  • 4. What is one way in which the culture of the Ice Age people grew more complex?
    • A. The painted the walls and ceilings of caves.
    • B. They began to hunt.
    • C. They became friends with the mammoths.
    • D. None of the above.
  • Answer
    • A
guided practice independent practice
Guided Practice & Independent Practice
  • Check Your Progress pg. 23
    • #1 both a) and b)
    • Complete sentences.
    • When done place pencil in the air
    • If Ms. Graham gives you a stamp, move onto Independent Practice.
  • Independent Practice
    • #3 and #4
    • Complete Sentences.
    • Placed finished work on the top tray in the back of the room.