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1. Navigation Pack 3 Pack 3

2. Lessons in Pack 3 • Contours • Bearings • Estimating Timings • OS map symbols Pack 3

3. Contours close together indicate a steep slope Contours further apart indicate a gentle slope Contour lines are at 10 metre height intervals Contour LinesContour lines indicate the height of the land above sea level.They are useful to indicate hills and steep valleys. Pack 3

4. Contour Lines Activity Match the hill profile (A-B) with the contour line (1-6) Pack 3

5. Compass & Bearings When using a compass, the big arrow in the middle of the plastic rectangle always points in the direction you want to go. That’s true for finding a bearing on a map, and for walking on a bearing The red end of the needle points North (sometimes black) The number where the big arrow crosses the dial is the compass bearing The dial needs to be rotated to point North This can be North on a map (the top of the map) when reading a bearing on a map Or lined up with the red magnetic needle when walking on a bearing Pack 3

6. 31 30 29 28 27 38 Measuring a Bearing on a Map • To find the bearing from Weston Church to Aston Church: • Point big arrow from Weston church to Aston church (or line up the edge of the compass) • Rotate the dial to point to North on the map (the top of the map) and align to the blue grid line • Read the number where the big arrow crosses the dial • From this example you can see that the bearing from Weston church to Aston church is 50o 39 40 41 42 Pack 3

7. 31 30 29 28 27 38 Measure a Bearing What is the bearing from Aston church to the church in Chellaston? 39 40 41 42 Pack 3

8. Walking on a Bearing • To walk on a bearing • Measure the bearing on which you want to walk from the map (e.g.145o) • Rotate the dial so that the big arrow crosses 145o • Move the whole compass so that the red magnetic needle lines up with the red arrow in the dial • Walk in the direction of the big black arrow This is useful for navigating in conditions of poor visibility (fog, snow, night) Pack 3

9. Estimating Time for walks Scouts walking pace 100m = 1min 30 second Nasmith’s Rule (use when walking up hills) For every 10 metre height gain add an extra minute Or For every brown contour line crossed add an extra minute Estimate of time to walk from the sheep fold to Nether Moor: Horizontal distance: 800 metres Height gained: 127 metres 800m x 1min 30sec = 12 minutes 127m ÷ 10 = 12.7 minutes Total time = 12 + 12.7 minutes = 24.7 minutes Activity: Estimate the time to walk from the top of Nether moor to Madwoman’s Stones Pack 3

10. OS Map Symbols Heights Rock Features Water Features Pack 3