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WISCONSIN INDIANS. Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Menominee Oneida Stockbridge-Munsee (Mohicans) Potawatomi Chippewa (Lake Superior) Bad River Band Lac Courte Oreilles Band Lac du Flambeau Band Red Cliff Band Sokaogon (Mole Lake) Band St. Croix Band. Review: Band/ Tribe/ Nation.

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wisconsin indians
  • Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)
  • Menominee
  • Oneida
  • Stockbridge-Munsee (Mohicans)
  • Potawatomi
  • Chippewa (Lake Superior)
    • Bad River Band
    • Lac Courte Oreilles Band
    • Lac du Flambeau Band
    • Red Cliff Band
    • Sokaogon (Mole Lake) Band
    • St. Croix Band
review band tribe nation
Review: Band/ Tribe/ Nation
  • Tribe is a Nation
  • Band (basic unit, average 5-6 clans)
  • Confederacy is also a Nation (groups of tribes that come together)
recap culture
Recap Culture
  • Family
  • Political
  • Religion
  • Language
  • Clan Structure
    • Maternal or Paternal
    • Economy organized around the clan
    • If a clan member needs help and you can…you must.
    • Exogamous (have to marry outside of clan)
  • Chiefs
    • War (Red), only Chief on War parties
    • Peace (White), diplomats and bringing people together
    • You become chief if people follow you, convince them you have better ideas…etc)
  • Calumet
    • Peace Pipe: Fictive Kinship, when smoked with someone else, you treat each other as clan members
  • Lex Talionis (Eye for an Eye)
    • Clans enforce this principle
    • Justice is clan based
  • Purity and Balance
  • Fire and Water
  • Green Corn Ceremony
  • Ethics, Morality, and Religion are tied together, and can not be separated.
  • The Indians of Wisconsin, due to coming from various places, spoke many different dialects
    • Algonquian
    • Iroquoian
    • Siouan
    • Ojibwe/Chippewa
ho chunk history
Ho-Chunk History
  • People called them Winnebago (Stinky people), they for obvious reasons prefer Ho-Chunk (big voice or people of the sacred language)
  • In 1634, Jean Nicolet encounters the Ho-Chunk people in Green Bay
  • 1837, Ho-Chunk people ceded their land to the whites, although Tribal leaders argued that the treaty was no valid due to misinterpretation and were forced to move off their lands.
ho chunk today
Ho-Chunk Today
  • In 1963, The Wisconsin Winnebago Nation became federally recognized due to the Reorganization Act of 1934.
  • Today approximately 6,100 people are enrolled as tribal members
  • The Ho-Chunk people also fear the loss of their language
menominee history
Menominee History
  • In 1634 Jean Nicolet visited the Menominee Nation (the first European to do so)
  • 1848, Treaty of Poygan was signed
    • Ceded 4.5 million acres to the US and forced them to go to Minnesota, although Chief Oshkosh refused.
  • 1892, Dam was built on the Wolf River, which prohibited the Sturgeon to go to their spawning grounds, which left the people without their main food source.
menominee today
Menominee Today
  • On June 17, 1954 The Menominee Termination Act was signed into law which provided the Menominee the right to control their own Reservation.
  • Then in 1973, The Menominee Restoration Act was signed.
    • Provided the Menominee with full tribal status as a sovereign nation.
oneida history
Oneida History
  • “People of the Standing Stone”
  • Played a major role in the American Revolution (Patriot Side).
  • Part of the Iroquois Confederacy
  • Due to a falling out with the Six Nations and a treaty with the US and Menominee, the Oneidas came to Wisconsin
oneida today
Oneida Today
  • Turtle School
  • 15,000 members and growing
  • Cool Fact: Oneida Tribal Member Tom Skenandore was the first professional football player employed by the team today known as the Green Bay Packers
stockbridge munsee history band of mohicans
Stockbridge- Munsee HistoryBand of Mohicans
  • In 1609, The Stockbridge were the first tribe that Henry Hudson came in contact with.
  • Like the Oneida, they played an important role in the winning of the American Revolution.
  • Left New York in the 1700’s and came to Wisconsin.
stockbridge munsee today band of mohicans
Stockbridge- Munsee TodayBand of Mohicans
  • 1,500+ members today
  • Cool Fact: The first public school teacher in Wisconsin was Electa Quinney (Stockbridge Indian)
potawatomi history
Potawatomi History
  • 43 Treaties were made with them, more than any other tribe or band.
  • Closely related to Chippewa and Ottawa
  • Moved around the least
  • Separate Language
potawatomi today
Potawatomi Today
  • Today they are located in the UP Michigan, Wisconsin, Kansas, and Oklahoma
  • 1,200 + Tribal Members Today
  • “Keeper of the Faith”
  • Settlements began in the 1700’s
  • Origin of the Dream Catcher
  • Also known as Ojibwa
bad river chippewa
Bad RiverChippewa
  • 1854, Treaty with US created Bad River Reservation
  • Main Staple- Wild Rice
  • Preservation of land and air is a major concern of these people.
lac courte oreilles chippewa
Lac Courte OreillesChippewa
  • 1854- The Treaty of LaPointe established specific territorial rights of the LCO
  • The LCO, ousted the Sioux and took their lands as the LCO pushed westward
  • “Lac Courte Oreilles” means “short ears” because the Ojibwe in that area did not wear earrings.
  • Harvest Cranberries (1,500-3,000 barrels each year.)
lac du flambeau chippewa
Lac du FlambeauChippewa
  • Location of the sacred “Strawberry Island” (the place of the little people)
    • At this island, the last battle with the Sioux occurred in 1745.
    • In 1966, the island through archaeological survey was determined to have artifacts dating back to 200 B.C.
    • Fact: The world’s largest Sturgeon was speared on the Reservation (7ft 1 in, 195 ibs, 40 inches around)
red cliff chippewa
Red CliffChippewa
  • 1854, As stated before, The Treaty of LaPointe, established the Red Cliff Reservation
  • 1866, President Andrew Jackson by executive order expanded the Reservation
  • Red Cliff is known as the “hub of the Chippewa Nation”
  • Approximatley 5,000 people are members of the Red Cliff Band
sokaogon mole lake chippewa
Sokaogon (Mole Lake)Chippewa
  • 1806 Battle of Mole Lake (Sioux v. Chippewa in battle over Wild Rice)
  • Sokaogon means “Post in the Lake” people
  • “The Lost Tribe”
    • Treaty of 1855 promised money and 12 square miles of reservation for them
    • Treaty lost in a shipwreck on Lake Superior on its way to Washington DC
st croix chippewa
St. CroixChippewa
  • 2,000 Tribal Members
  • Reservation is scattered in a checkerboard of 11 separate communities over a four-country area.
discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • How have treaties impacted the movement of American Indians both in and out of Wisconsin?
  • Why do you think the Menominee were chosen for Termination?
  • Why would the Stockbridge Munsee and Oneida join the Patriot side of the American Revolution?