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What’s after SDR? The Role of Cognitive Radio And It’s Anticipated Adoption Rate
Agenda • Introduction to the SDR Forum • Where we are today – SDR as a mainstream technology • The evolution of SDR technology – dynamic spectrum access, cognitive radio, intelligent radio • Addressing technology challenges in deploying cognitive radio – activities of the SDR Forum and other partner organizations • Closing Thoughts: Business and Regulatory questions driving future technology evolution
Introduction to the SDR Forum Promoting the Success of Next Generation Radio Technologies
SDR Forum Collaborative Model Standards Profiles Standards Certifications (future) Reports (use cases, requirements, technology) Recommendations Specifications Standards Bodies (IEEE, OMG, ITU, ETSI, etc.)
Where We are Today SDR Has Silently Become a Mainstream Technology in Many Market Domains
What is Software Defined Radio (SDR) According to the latest definition recently coordinated between the IEEE P1900.1 and the SDR Forum, an SDR is: Radio in which some or all of the Physical Layer Functions are software-defined voice data Layer 3 and up SignalProcessingSubsystem Antenna Trans ceiver RF PA Source: http://www.sdrforum.org/pages/documentLibrary/documents/SDRF-06-R-0011-V1_0_0.pdf
Example of a Modern SDR: the Apple iPhone 3GSource: http://www.techonline.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=209000013&queryText=iphone Hardware coprocessors (ASIC) for computationally expensive functions DSP for baseband signal processing GPP for higher levels of the protocol stack Source: http://www.infineon.com/cms/en/product/channel.html?channel=ff80808112ab681d0112ab6ab9cb05f1
What is the current state of technology adoption for SDR in the various market domains??? Commercial Wireless Infrastructure Satellite Modems Public Safety Mobile Handsets and Terminals Defense Communications Source: http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/NORVH/2-3.jpg
Why SDR??? • Benefits For Radio Manufacturers • Improves time to market for new products • Reduces overall development cost • Allows “bug fixes” while radio is in service • Benefits For Radio Service Providers and Acquisition Authorities • Preserves value of hardware investment (CAPEX) • Software upgrade to add new features • Software upgrade to add support new standards • Reduces operating costs (OPEX) • Common platform for multiple markets • Remote maintenance Note: Today innovation in SDR in driven largely by market need versus technology enthusiasm
The Evolution of SDR Technology Dynamic Spectrum Access Cognitive Radio Intelligent Radio
The Promise of SDR: Ubiquitous Communications The vision of SDR – Allowing what ever type of communication you needed, where ever you are, and when ever you need it – has yet to be realized by the end user in many markets Source: Bourse, et. al., E2R Tutorial, SDR Forum 2005 Technical Conference
Achieving this vision requires moving beyond “SDR” Cognitive Radio Intelligent Radio While not Required, SDR can be a Key Enabler for Each of These Technologies Adaptive Radio
Key Issues Driving Cognitive Radio: Coexistence and Interoperability • Primary Objectives • Increased spectrum availability through coexistence • Unrestricted roaming between networks and services • Reduced user control burden • Dynamic regulatory compliance based on location • CR in Defense Communications • Interoperability during joint/combined operations • Coexistence with other communications (commercial, civil) • CR in Public Safety Communications • Interoperability among first responders • Coexistence with other communications (commercial, defense) • CR in Satellite Communications • Coexistence with terrestrial communications operating in the same spectrum Source: http://www.sdrforum.org/pages/documentLibrary/documents/SDRF-06-P-0009-V1_0_0_CRWG_Defs.pdf
Potential Cognitive Economic Benefit CR economic cumulative enhancement benefits between 2008 and 2015 inclusively are: CR Service Enhancement Revenues: $1,013 B CR Operator Enhancement CAPEX: $152 B CR Network Equipment CAPEX: $76 B CR Terminal Enhancement Revenues: $97 B Total CR Economic Benefit $1,138 B Source: Adopted and updated from: SDR Market Study: Cellular: The Cognitive Radio Market, by SDR Forum, June 2007
“Quantifying the Benefits of Cognitive Radio” Under development by the SDR Forum Cognitive Radio Work Group Customers: the world wide telecommunications and spectrum management community who need to understand the quantitative benefits of using cognitive radio technologies in next generation wireless systems This reports lays the quantitative groundwork for understanding the technical benefits and system design choices associated with cognitive radio technologies including DSA and Intelligent Radio
Today, Adoption of Cognitive Radio Technologies is roughly where SDR was in 1999/2000 Source: analysis of Proceedings of the annual SDR Technical Conference And Product Exposition Adoption of “Cognitive Radio” Technologies Some Adoption of Adaptive Radio Technologies Source: http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/NORVH/2-3.jpg
Architectural Models and Key Issues • Spectrum Awareness • Sensor models • Database models • Combinations • Cognitive Radio • or • Cognitive Network • Coexistence Management • Policy Management SDR Forum Cognitive Radio Concept Architecture
Management and Control of Cognitive Functions Source: http://www.sdrforum.org/pages/documentLibrary/documents/SDRF-08-P-0009-V1_0_0_MLM_Use_Cases.pdf • Ontology Development by the SDR Forum Modeling Language for Mobility WG: A mechanism for capturing capabilities, configuration and system state of the radio • The goal is to develop ontologies and policies that are expressed in a formal declarative language (e.g., OWL) that is machine readable (driving follow on development of APIs) • Overlaps with IEEE SCC41 P1900.5, which is developing a subset of this functionality
Managing Spectral Awareness • The Cognitive “Radio Environment Map” • Data and meta-data defining the spectral environment that a terminal is operating in at a given moment in time • Can include data on spectrum economic transactions, dropouts, handovers, available networks, and services, etc. • Data contained within the map is derived, in part, by capturing and synthesizing measurements from many radios • The current belief of the SDR ForumCognitive Radio Work Group is that simple “database” approaches will not support the more advanced spectrum allocation “use cases” under consideration • real time spectrum auctions • real-time coexistence protocols • spectrum brokering between secondary systems Source: SDRF Project Proposal PAC-2009-003 entitled Cognitive Radio Database
SDR Forum Cognitive Radio DataBase (CRDB) Project: A Radio Environment Map (REM) anticipating future CR needs Internal Database and Common Database for Cognitive Radios. (Adapted from Figure 11-1 in “Cognitive Radio Technology,” Bruce Fette, ed.,1st edition, Elsevier, 2006 )
“Radio Environment Map” Projects • Projects defining How to Distribute Radio Environment Map Information • IEEE SCC41 P1900.6 Sensor Interface Specification • E3 and IEEE SCC41 P1900.4 Cognitive Pilot Channel • Remote Application Service (Google model) • Projects defining the Radio Environment Map • Google Database Project • E2R/E3 architecture and IEEE SCC41 P1900.4 Specification • Future - SDR Forum Cognitive Radio Database Project • Multiple ITU WRC-11 Projects? • Projects Defining the “Language” Used for Distribution • IEEE SCC41 P1900.4 and the SDRF MLM
Test Guidelines and Requirements for Secondary Spectrum Access of Unused TV Spectrum Behavior and Control • Customers • Radio Manufacturers and Regulators • Purpose • Define the usage models and test requirements for personal portable devices operating in TV White Space to provide a basis for test and certification Emitter Database RF Policy Emitter Database RF Sense Environment Behavior and Control Emitter Database Location, Detections Sense Environment Behavior and Control Sense Location Policy Available resources Sense Location Policy CR Protocol, Cooperative Sensing, Synchronization Non-Radio DB Access
Other Programs/Projects We Are Monitoring • ETSI Technical Committee on Reconfigurable Radio Systems • Looking at standards for SDR and CR • The SDR Forum has a letter of intent to collaborate with this group • Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance • Board of directors is CTOs from major cellular carriers including Vodafone, T-Mobile, China Mobile, FranceTelecom, AT&T. • Defining requirements and specifications for “self-optimizing/self organizing networks” • Carrier speak for cognitive radio without using the term • DARPA WNaN, MIC Program (Japan), CogNeA, IEEE802.11/19/22, Lots of smaller EU programs
Closing Comments Business and Regulatory Questions Driving Future Technology Evolution
New Challenges in Business Models • Unrestricted roaming between networks: “As the end user seamlessly enters and leaves my network, how do I make sure I get paid?” • Open access: “If anybody can use my network, how can I make money selling services?” • Commoditization of spectrum: “If cognitive radio works, do we really need to auction off spectrum anymore?” • Spectrum leasing: “If you aren’t currently using your spectrum, can I rent it?” • Spectrum Pooling: “Why can’t I just buy and own the Spectrum? What is my incentive to share with others?”
Regulatory Questions • How can technology best serve the public need by easing the demand for dwindling spectrum resources? • Are new regulations required? • Should operation be licensed vs. unlicensed? • Should licenses be time limited? • Should spectrum be technology neutral? How do we harmonize the regulations to gain the advantages of these technologies on a global basis?
Long Term Goals in Discussion • Spectrum pooling between federal agencies and non federal actors (state and local public safety, or even commercial) • Dynamic spectrum access rights overseas for DOD and humanitarian operations. • Both of these long term objectives will only come about if non-federal stakeholders are consulted and educated effectively, which is going to require a substantial outreach effort.
Investing in standards is not enough… • There needs to be regular interaction with industry around the business issues associated with DSA • motivation for participation in spectrum pooling • methods for enforcing commitments. • The SDRF is an appropriate place to host these interactions and stands ready and willing to get involved. • What can our members do in the next year to help you achieve your longer term goals?