Unit 2 Tourism Development
Agents of tourism development Organisations, bodies and individuals which influence or contribute towards the development of tourism products and services. These agents can include: • Development agencies • Landowners • Development companies • Consultancies • Leisure organisations • Entertainment organisations • Local authorities • National governments • National and regional tourist boards • Voluntary and community groups • Pressure groups
Agents of tourism development There are usually a range of agents working together and these come from different categories: • Private sector companies • Public sector organisations • Voluntary sector bodies
The Objectives of Tourism Development • Economic • Environmental • Sociocultural • Political
Economic • Employment creation - jobs in hotels, transport, tourist attractions, farming, crafts • Increased earnings from foreign currency - tourists buy local products and services. Leakage occurs when income from tourism goes to boost profits of tour operators - major problem in many developing countries where there are all-inclusive holidays. • Increased income for commercial operators - Private companies want to make a profit e.g. Disney • Economic development and regeneration - e.g. Bradford - run down industrial city which promoted tourism development to create jobs and boost income
Environmental Objectives • To preserve wildlife - tourism development (buildings) can disrupt or destroy natural habitats and visiting tourists cause increased litter, pollution, noise and even light. • To provide environmental education - can help to conserve the environment - notices about litter and keeping to the path etc. can be seen in many resorts • To improve the environment - renovation or regeneration of buildings and areas. Planning applications that include environmental improvements are viewed more favourably.
Sociocultural Objectives • To promote of understanding between the cultures of tourists and those of the local population - responsible tourism development agents are aware of the significant differences between the cultures of tourists and those of the host population and seek to promote an understanding between them. • To provide cultural entertainment for the tourists – increased income for locals. • To improve to the quality of life of the local population - Regeneration of run down areas into thriving tourism and business areas - e.g. Lace Market in Nottingham, Canary Wharf in London. • To increase the provision of community facilities - Locals also benefit from the tourist facilities - health and fitness centres in hotels. In poorer countries, new roads, airports etc benefit local trade, fresh water and shops - although in reality many can't afford the goods.
Political Objectives • To enhance the image of a place - regeneration of an area together with investment in new facilities and marketing all enhance an areas image = improvement of quality of life for locals. This then encourages more investment. • To create a regional or national identity - countries and areas seek to create a regional or national identity which is then used to promote tourism to an area - e.g. UK for foreign visitors - Royal family, castles and history, red London buses etc. • To boost national morale or pride and use this to gain political advantage. • Toimprove the balance of payments through increased foreign exchange earnings will benefit a government's position. • To increase international understanding
Managing the Impact of tourism development Aim is to maximise the positive impact and minimise the negative impact
Maximising the positive impact • Retention of visitor spending – provide everything at the resort so visitors stay and spend money – Euro Disney • Reduce leakage • Invest tourist income in local facilities e.g. road improvements • Training to improve skills of locals • Educate tourists – use water and electricity supplies carefully, recycle
Minimising the negative impacts • Carry out and environmental impact assessment before starting development • Planning control – is development appropriate for the area? • Adopt sustainable tourism principles – Agenda 21 • Manage visitors and traffic – park and ride, out of season attractions
Case study - Bradford • Victorian industrial city suffering from economic recession • Regeneration – old woollen mills – Industrial heritage trail and bargain priced fabrics from factory outlets. • Surrounding attractions – Bronte Home • National museum of Photography, film and television • Flavours of Asia – restaurants • Over 6 million visitors per annum
Case study Cambridge • Park and ride • Charge for entry to colleges – restricts numbers and improves tourist behaviour • Guided tours • Promotion of other attractions in surrounding area
Case Study - Antigua Positive impacts – • Economic = more jobs, better infrastructure • Environmental = Improved surroundings, some green tourism • Sociocultural = traditional steel bands and crafts maintained, slavery museum
Case study - Antigua Negative impacts • Economic = jobs not in management, increased cost of living, leakage • Environmental = pollution, loss of natural vegetation, coral reefs destroyed • Sociocultural = loss of traditional songs, all-inclusive holidays mean that tourists don’t go to local restaurants and get to understand local culture
Case study of ecotourism Galapagos Islands • Charge $100 to enter national park – keeps place exclusive, money used to maintain national park • Must be accompanied by guide • Keep to trails • Take no food onto islands • Wash to remove sand and pollen grains to preserve unique ecosystem on each island
Galapagos Islands • Has helped to maintain unique environment • Has improved economy – income and jobs • Has upset local fishermen whose fishing grounds are now restricted
Case study - Majorca • Problems with water and ‘the wrong sort of tourist’ • Attempt to attract fewer tourists from higher socioeconomic groups – by improvements in accommodation and restricting flights • How do locals feel?
The Exam • Two and a half hours – plenty of time to do reading – don’t rush to start writing • 4 questions • Two case studies – one UK and one overseas – UK case study may not be a real place but will be based on one. • 60% of the marks are available to E grade students make sure you get all of them!
Tourism Development Questions • Describe facilities and amenities • Explain role of agents of tourism development and associated conflicts • Describe and explain the impacts of tourism development • Explain strategies to maximise the positive impacts and minimise the negative impacts of tourism development • Suggestions for tourism development – museums, accommodation etc – not theme parks or leisure centres • Describe a location
Key words • List – bullet points OK • Describe – say something brief about the place/amenity etc • Explain – give a detailed answer • Analyse – give ‘for’ and ‘against’ with reasons and conclude • Evaluate - give ‘for’ and ‘against’ with reasons and conclude • Justify – explain ‘why’ in detail