SocializationSOC110: Introduction to SociologySarah Goodrum, Ph.D. Nature vs. Nurture Theories of Socialization Agents of Socialization
Socialization • process of social interaction through which people acquire personality and learn the way of life of their society.
Nature vs. NurtureWhy are humans the way they are? • From the 1850s-1980s, people debated whether our personalities and social behavior were the product of nature OR nurturing. • nature (or heredity) • nurture (or learning) • It’s now viewed as a futile debate, because we recognize that we’re a complex interaction of the two.
Theories of SocializationHow do we acquire culture? • Freud’s Theory of Personality(nature + nurture) • 3 Parts to Personality: • Id – drive for gratification • Ego – the balance between drives and societal demands • Superego – overtime internalize societal demands • e.g., Sylvester and Tweety bird • Freud believed that personality disorders developed when the id or superego took over.
Theories of SocializationHow do we acquire culture? • George Herbert Mead(the “self” emerges from social interaction) • 2 Parts of the Self: • “I” - active, creative self • e.g., I want to go to the movies. • “me” - internalized social demands • e.g., What will they think of me? • Mead’s 3 Stages in Childhood: • imitation – mimic and imitate people • play stage – taking the role of the other • game stage – taking on the role of the generalized other (more than one individual)
Agents of Socialization • significant individual, group, or institution that provides structured situation(s) in which socialization takes place
Agents of Socialization • Family– primary agent of socialization • e.g., boys vs. girls • Peer Groups– most powerful form of socialization after family because it’s voluntary • e.g., Pollution Rituals • School– academic and hidden curriculum • e.g., kindergarten • Mass Media– introduces us to an array of people known only indirectly • e.g., sports figures, politicians, authors, announcers