Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

diagnostic imaging considerations for wildlife l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife

play fullscreen
1 / 54
Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife
495 Views
Download Presentation
ivanbritt
Download Presentation

Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife Mark A. Mitchell DVM, MS, PhD University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine

  2. Diagnostic imaging • Non-invasive • Radiography • Ultrasonography • Advanced imaging (CT, MRI) • Semi-invasive/Invasive • Endoscopy

  3. Introduction • Diagnostic imaging • Underutilized • Thorough diagnostic work-up • Getting started: • learn anatomy • restraint and anesthesia • positioning techniques • Practice, practice, pratice

  4. Radiographic Equipment • Machine should be capable of: • short exposure time: 1/60 or faster • high mA- capacity (>300): better detail • KvP range: 40-100 • bone less radiopaque than mammals • 2 kVp incremental change

  5. Radiographic equipment • Dental radiographs

  6. Radiographic equipment • Digital radiography

  7. Radiographic Equipment • Film and screens • High-detail, rare-earth • Kodak Ektascan EM-1 • gray film • single emulsion • slow speed • more detail • Kodak T-Mat TML • black film • double emulsion • fast speed • less detail • use appropriate size

  8. Restraint and Immobilization • Manual vs. Chemical Restraint • Manual restraint • physical restraint • increases stress • restraint devices • tubes • “blinders”

  9. Chemical restraint

  10. Positioning-Birds and Mammals • Standard • Dorsoventral or Ventrodorsal • Lateral

  11. Positioning-Reptiles • Chelonians • dorsoventral • tortoise in prone position • measure thickest point between carapace and plastron

  12. Positioning-Reptiles • Chelonians • Lateral • Horizontal beam • place tortoise on sponge • cassette in vertical position • Vertical beam • fasten tortoise to cassette and position animal in vertical position

  13. Positioning-Reptiles • Chelonians • Craniocaudal • Horizontal beam • tortoise on sponge • cassette placed vertically and behind tortoise • Vertical • fasten tortoise to cassette

  14. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Respiratory System • Trachea • Syrinx • Lungs • Air Sacs • Interclavicular, thoracic, and abdominal air sacs

  15. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Cardiovascular System • Heart • right-sided aortic arch • ascending aorta • pulmonary arteries • caudal vena cava

  16. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Gastrointestinal tract • Crop • Esophagus • Proventriculus • Ventriculus • Small intestine • duodenum • Cloaca

  17. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Viscera • Liver • “hour-glass” • Spleen • Kidneys • Gonads • obvious during breeding periods

  18. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Skeletal • Clavicles • Coracoids • Appendages • Normal anatomy

  19. Avian Radiographs • Contrast radiographs • deliver suspension into crop • Iohexal (25-30 mg/kg) • 2x as fast as barium • every 15 minutes • radiograph over 2-3 hour period

  20. Radiographic Abnormalities

  21. Radiographic Abnormalities

  22. Radiographic Abnormalities

  23. Radiographic Abnormalities

  24. Radiographic Abnormalities

  25. Chelonian Radiographic Anatomy

  26. Chelonian Radiographic Anatomy

  27. Chelonian Radiographic Anatomy

  28. Radiographic Abnormalities

  29. Radiographic Abnormalities

  30. Radiographic Abnormalities

  31. Radiographic Abnormalities

  32. Radiographic Abnormalities

  33. Radiographic Abnormalities

  34. Radiographic Abnormalities

  35. Radiographic Anatomy

  36. Radiographic Anatomy

  37. Radiographic Anatomy

  38. Radiographic Anatomy

  39. Mammal Radiographic Anatomy • Heart • Point of elbow • Mustelids • Caudal to elbow • Globoid • Gastrointestinal tract • Splenomegaly • Kidneys • 2 lumbar vertebrae • adrenal glands • Urinary system • Barium: 15 ml/kg, 20% solution

  40. Radiographic Abnormality

  41. Radiographic Abnormality

  42. Radiographic Abnormality

  43. Rodent and Rabbit Radiographic Anatomy • Teeth • Tympanic bullae • Respiratory tract • reduced size • Gastrointestinal tract • prominent cecum • Urogenital system • Skeleton

  44. Ultrasonography • Value? • Anatomic size • Location • Architecture • Organs • Heart • Liver • Reproductive • Bladders • Kidneys • GI • Post-radiographs • Overall sensitivity?

  45. Ultrasound

  46. Pre-follicular

  47. Endoscopy • Diagnostic imaging? • Additional benefits beyond imaging • Biopsies • More invasive • General anesthesia

  48. Endoscopy • Rigid endoscopes • Sizes • Procedures • Coelioscopy • Cloacoscopy • Upper respiratory • Oral • Aural