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Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife. Mark A. Mitchell DVM, MS, PhD University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine. Diagnostic imaging. Non-invasive Radiography Ultrasonography Advanced imaging (CT, MRI) Semi-invasive/Invasive Endoscopy. Introduction.

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Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife


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    1. Diagnostic Imaging Considerations for Wildlife Mark A. Mitchell DVM, MS, PhD University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine

    2. Diagnostic imaging • Non-invasive • Radiography • Ultrasonography • Advanced imaging (CT, MRI) • Semi-invasive/Invasive • Endoscopy

    3. Introduction • Diagnostic imaging • Underutilized • Thorough diagnostic work-up • Getting started: • learn anatomy • restraint and anesthesia • positioning techniques • Practice, practice, pratice

    4. Radiographic Equipment • Machine should be capable of: • short exposure time: 1/60 or faster • high mA- capacity (>300): better detail • KvP range: 40-100 • bone less radiopaque than mammals • 2 kVp incremental change

    5. Radiographic equipment • Dental radiographs

    6. Radiographic equipment • Digital radiography

    7. Radiographic Equipment • Film and screens • High-detail, rare-earth • Kodak Ektascan EM-1 • gray film • single emulsion • slow speed • more detail • Kodak T-Mat TML • black film • double emulsion • fast speed • less detail • use appropriate size

    8. Restraint and Immobilization • Manual vs. Chemical Restraint • Manual restraint • physical restraint • increases stress • restraint devices • tubes • “blinders”

    9. Chemical restraint

    10. Positioning-Birds and Mammals • Standard • Dorsoventral or Ventrodorsal • Lateral

    11. Positioning-Reptiles • Chelonians • dorsoventral • tortoise in prone position • measure thickest point between carapace and plastron

    12. Positioning-Reptiles • Chelonians • Lateral • Horizontal beam • place tortoise on sponge • cassette in vertical position • Vertical beam • fasten tortoise to cassette and position animal in vertical position

    13. Positioning-Reptiles • Chelonians • Craniocaudal • Horizontal beam • tortoise on sponge • cassette placed vertically and behind tortoise • Vertical • fasten tortoise to cassette

    14. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Respiratory System • Trachea • Syrinx • Lungs • Air Sacs • Interclavicular, thoracic, and abdominal air sacs

    15. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Cardiovascular System • Heart • right-sided aortic arch • ascending aorta • pulmonary arteries • caudal vena cava

    16. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Gastrointestinal tract • Crop • Esophagus • Proventriculus • Ventriculus • Small intestine • duodenum • Cloaca

    17. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Viscera • Liver • “hour-glass” • Spleen • Kidneys • Gonads • obvious during breeding periods

    18. Avian Radiographic Anatomy • Skeletal • Clavicles • Coracoids • Appendages • Normal anatomy

    19. Avian Radiographs • Contrast radiographs • deliver suspension into crop • Iohexal (25-30 mg/kg) • 2x as fast as barium • every 15 minutes • radiograph over 2-3 hour period

    20. Radiographic Abnormalities

    21. Radiographic Abnormalities

    22. Radiographic Abnormalities

    23. Radiographic Abnormalities

    24. Radiographic Abnormalities

    25. Chelonian Radiographic Anatomy

    26. Chelonian Radiographic Anatomy

    27. Chelonian Radiographic Anatomy

    28. Radiographic Abnormalities

    29. Radiographic Abnormalities

    30. Radiographic Abnormalities

    31. Radiographic Abnormalities

    32. Radiographic Abnormalities

    33. Radiographic Abnormalities

    34. Radiographic Abnormalities

    35. Radiographic Anatomy

    36. Radiographic Anatomy

    37. Radiographic Anatomy

    38. Radiographic Anatomy

    39. Mammal Radiographic Anatomy • Heart • Point of elbow • Mustelids • Caudal to elbow • Globoid • Gastrointestinal tract • Splenomegaly • Kidneys • 2 lumbar vertebrae • adrenal glands • Urinary system • Barium: 15 ml/kg, 20% solution

    40. Radiographic Abnormality

    41. Radiographic Abnormality

    42. Radiographic Abnormality

    43. Rodent and Rabbit Radiographic Anatomy • Teeth • Tympanic bullae • Respiratory tract • reduced size • Gastrointestinal tract • prominent cecum • Urogenital system • Skeleton

    44. Ultrasonography • Value? • Anatomic size • Location • Architecture • Organs • Heart • Liver • Reproductive • Bladders • Kidneys • GI • Post-radiographs • Overall sensitivity?

    45. Ultrasound

    46. Pre-follicular

    47. Endoscopy • Diagnostic imaging? • Additional benefits beyond imaging • Biopsies • More invasive • General anesthesia

    48. Endoscopy • Rigid endoscopes • Sizes • Procedures • Coelioscopy • Cloacoscopy • Upper respiratory • Oral • Aural